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Table 2 Odds ratios for poor self-reported mental health according to school pedagogical and social climate

From: School climate and mental health among Swedish adolescents: a multilevel longitudinal study

Measure of mental healthPoor mental health (%)aModel 1 OR (95% CI)Model 2b OR (95% CI)Model 3c OR (95% CI)
grade 8grade 9
Teacher PESOC score tertile
 CES-DC
  Lowest10.4613.771.001.001.00
  Middle13.1115.191.24 (0.98–1.57)1.47 (1.10–1.97)1.47 (1.06–2.02)
  High13.3116.831.31 (1.03–1.67)1.52 (1.11–2.09)1.41 (1.01–1.98)
 SDQ total problems
  Low10.0711.841.001.001.00
  Middle10.6312.931.20 (0.91–1.58)1.50 (1.08–2.08)1.42 (0.99–2.05)
  High12.1614.001.34 (1.01–1.77)1.64 (1.16–2.33)1.64 (1.12–2.40)
 SDQ internalizing problems
  Low13.3315.881.001.001.00
  Middle14.4416.891.14 (0.90–1.44)1.28 (0.96–1.70)1.40 (1.02–1.91)
  High16.3118.241.32 (1.04–1.68)1.48 (1.09–2.00)1.45 (1.05–2.01)
 SDQ externalizing problems
  Lowest7.868.901.001.001.00
  Middle8.148.591.10 (0.83–1.47)1.34 (0.97–1.85)1.23 (0.86–1.76)
  High9.318.371.15 (0.86–1.54)1.27 (0.90–1.79)1.23 (0.84–1.78)
Student PESOC score tertile
 CES-DC
  Low12.3013.771.001.001.00
  Middle11.9016.941.14 (0.92–1.41)1.21 (0.93–1.56)1.23 (0.93–1.63)
  High12.5714.070.98 (0.77–1.25)0.95 (0.70–1.28)0.90 (0.65–1.25)
 SDQ total problems
  Low10.6512.941.001.001.00
  Middle11.4713.581.11 (0.88–1.40)1.10 (0.83–1.45)1.22 (0.89–1.66)
  High10.5211.541.02 (0.78–1.34)1.04 (0.75–1.45)1.12 (0.78–1.61)
 SDQ internalizing problems
  Low13.7716.741.001.001.00
  Middle15.1317.771.11 (0.90–1.37)1.11 (0.87–1.42)1.16 (0.89–1.52)
  High15.0015.891.03 (0.82–1.30)1.00 (0.75–1.33)0.98 (0.72–1.33)
 SDQ externalizing problems
  Low9.1310.181.001.001.00
  Middle7.898.450.88 (0.69–1.14)0.86 (0.64–1.16)0.84 (0.60–1.16)
  High8.237.200.88 (0.66–1.16)0.96 (0.69–1.34)0.96 (0.67–1.38)
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence intervals, CES-DC Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children, SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
  2. aSubjects with missing data are excluded
  3. bAdjusted for school ownership, the school’s geographical location, adolescent’s gender, CES-DC/SDQ score in grade 7, parental education and parental country of origin
  4. cIncludes besides the variables in model 2 parental cognitive school engagement, percentage of parents with post-high school education, percentage of parents born abroad and percentage of teachers with pedagogical university degree at the school level
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