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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample according to student and teacher PESOC tertiles

From: School climate and mental health among Swedish adolescents: a multilevel longitudinal study

VariableNTotal teacher PESOC tertile in wave 2Total student PESOC tertile in wave 2
Low (n = 1093)Middle (n = 1084)High (n = 1168)p-valueaLow (n = 1029)Middle (n = 1118)High (n = 1212)p-valuea
Categorical variables %%% %%% 
School ownership3416   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Municipal school 92.3169.2847.09 87.4678.8043.73 
 Private school 7.6930.7252.91 12.5421.2056.27 
Gender3416   0.23   0.22
 Boy 49.0446.3149.74 50.3448.8446.70 
 Girl 50.9653.6950.26 49.6651.1653.30 
Parental education3360   < 0.001   < 0.001
 No parent with post-high school education 36.8526.3425.88 30.1635.1024.12 
 At least one parent with post-high school education 63.1573.6674.13 69.8464.9075.88 
Parental country of origin3186   0.32   0.048
 No parent born abroad 80.5778.9781.57 80.4178.2582.46 
 At least one parent born abroad 19.4321.0318.43 19.5921.7517.54 
School’s geographical location3416   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Rural 67.644.3742.89 55.6964.5835.15 
 Urban 32.455.6357.11 44.3135.4264.85 
Continuous variables MedianMedianMedian MedianMedianMedian 
% of parents with post-high school education at the school level323151.0063.0066.00< 0.00151.0053.0067.00< 0.001
% of parents born abroad at the school level310417.0014.0011.00< 0.00114.0015.0014.00< 0.001
% of teachers with pedagogical university degree at the school level323785.2083.7080.90< 0.00182.9083.8083.50< 0.001
Parental school engagement312223.0024.0024.000.01323.0023.0024.000.0015
CES-DC in grade 7321212.0012.0012.000.5812.0012.0012.000.86
Total self-reported SDQ in grade 732259.009.009.000.219.009.009.000.43
Total parent-reported SDQ in grade 731355.004.005.000.144.005.004.000.0019
  1. PESOC, Pedagogical and Social Climate Questionnaire; CES-DC, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children; SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
  2. aThe p-value corresponds to chi-square tests in case of categorical data and to Kruskal-Wallis tests in case of continuous variables
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