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Table 4 Association between age and public toilet use behaviors

From: A mixed-methods study on toilet hygiene practices among Chinese in Hong Kong

Behavioral variables aModel 1Model 2
Crude Odds Ratio (95%CI)Adjusted Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Clean the toilet seat with alcohol
 < 40RefRef
 40–650.71 (0.42–1.19)0.51 (0.28–0.94)*
 65 or above0.21 (0.09–0.49)***0.16 (0.06–0.45)**
Sit on the toilet seat
 < 40RefRef
 40–650.71 (0.42–1.18)0.77 (0.43–1.39)
 65 or above2.60 (1.10–6.18)*2.65 (0.93–7.50)
Step on the toilet seat
 < 40RefRef
 40–650.75 (0.39–1.46)0.49 (0.22–1.06)
 65 or above0.40 (0.11–1.42)0.17 (0.03–0.88)*
Flush with the toilet lid closed
 < 40RefRef
 40–650.69 (0.41–1.15)0.64 (0.36–1.14)
 65 or above0.45 (0.21–0.95)*0.40 (0.16–0.96)*
Dry your hands with a hand dryer
 < 40RefRef
 40–650.68 (0.37–1.24)0.64 (0.32–1.30)
 65 or above0.43 (0.19–0.97)*0.47 (0.17–1.30)
Spit into squat toilets/ toilet bowl
 < 40RefRef
 40–651.54 (0.85–2.79)1.70 (0.84–3.44)
 65 or above2.75 (1.25–6.06)*4.20 (1.50–11.74)**
  1. a responses of “sometimes” and “always” for behavioral variables were grouped for binary logistic regression analysis and reference response was “never”
  2. Model 1: included age only in the modelling
  3. Model 2: gender, education, marriage and birthplace were controlled in the modelling
  4. *: < 0.05; **: < 0.01; ***: < 0.001