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Table 1 Trend in socio-demographic characteristics of children aged 12–23 months born in the last five years of NDHS 2001,2006, 2011 and 2016

From: The trend of full vaccination coverage in infants and inequalities by wealth quintile and maternal education: analysis from four recent demographic and health surveys in Nepal

 2001 (95% CI) N = 13132006 (95% CI) N = 9842011 (95% CI) N = 10002016 (95% CI) N = 1034P-value (Chi-square test)
Place of residence
 Urban6.6 (5.0–8.6)12.3 (10.3–14.7)9.7 (8.2–11.5)54.5 (48.4–60.5)< 0.0001
 Rural93.4 (91.4–95.0)87.7 (85.3–89.7)90.3 (88.5–91.8)45.5 (39.5–51.6)
Ecological region
 Mountain7.2 (5.9–8.7)9.9 (8.0–12.3)7.5 (6.3–8.9)7.2 (4.9,10.7)0.1762
 Hill43.0 (39.5–46.4)43.0 (38.9–47.3)40.2 (35.4–45.2)37.7 (32.2–43.5)
 Terai49.8 (46.2–53.4)47.0 (42.9–51.3)52.3 (47.0,57.6)55.0 (49.4–60.6)
Province
 Province 119.1(15.9–22.8)17.4 (14.1–21.2)20.0 (15.3–25.7)16.4 (13.9–19.2)0.1181
 Province 221.2(17.0–26.0)17.2 (13.1–22.3)23.9(16.9–32.5)25.1 (21.9–28.5)
 Province 315.1(12.1–18.6)16.7 (12.9–18.1)13.5 (10.3–17.6)16.3 (12.8–20.5)
 Province 48.2(5.6–11.7)12.4(8.4–18.1)10.6 (6.8–16.2)9.1 (7.6–10.7)
 Province 516.1(12.0–21.3)14.4(11.3–18.1)15.0(11.0–20.1)19.0 (16.0–22.3)
 Province 69.7(6.6,14.0)6.6 (4.2,10.3)6.9 (4.7,10.0)6.1 (5.1,7.3)
 Province 710.7(8.8,13.0)15.3 (11.8,19.5)10.1 (8.3,12.2)8.2 (6.7,9.9)
Sex of child
 Male48.1(45.2,51.0)52.3 (48.8,55.8)50.1 (46.4,53.8)55.8 (52.5,59.1)0.0080
 Female51.9(49.0,54.8)47.7 (44.2,51.2)49.9 (46.2,53.6)44.2 (40.9,47.5)
Educational level of mother
 No education71.0 (67.2–74.4)56.3(51.7–60.7)45.2 (39.4–51.2)31.1 (27.2–35.2)< 0.0001
 Primary14.6 (12.6–16.8)18.9(15.9–22.4)20.0 (16.6–23.8)20.5 (17.6–23.8)
 Secondary10.1 (8.2–12.3)18.2(15.2–21.6)21.1 (17.4–25.3)25.8 (22.4–29.5)
 Higher4.4 (3.2–6.0)6.6(4.7–9.2)13.7 (11.0–16.9)22.6 (19.0–26.7)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest26.1 (22.7–29.9)25.8(21.6–30.6)24.8 (20.8–29.1)20.8 (17.2–24.8)0.4163
 Poorer22.5 (19.7–25.6)20.2(16.7–24.3)22.7(19.0–26.8)22.1 (19.0–25.6)
 Middle19.3 (16.4–22.6)20.8(17.2–25.0)21.7(17.6–26.6)22.9 (19.8–26.4)
 Richer17.3 (14.8–20.2)17.2(13.7–21.3)18.3 (15.2–21.8)21.8 (18.5–25.6)
 Richest14.7 (11.8–18.3)15.9(12.6–19.9)12.6 (9.4–16.6)12.4 (9.7–15.7)
Caste/Ethnicity
 Brahamin/Chhetri29.2 (25.1–33.8)32.3(27.7–37.3)26.7 (22.2–31.7)25.8 (22.1–29.8)0.1749
 Terai/Madhesi other15.6 (12.1–19.9)8.6(6.0–12.1)11.1 (7.2–16.8)20.2 (16.2–24.9)
 Dalits14.3 (11.2–18.0)15.0(11.7–18.9)16.9 (12.8–21.9)15.5 (12.5–19.0)
 Janajati/Newar34.8 (29.6–40.3)37.5(31.7–43.7)36.2 (29.2–43.7)30.9 (26.5–35.6)
 Muslim/Other16.1 (3.2–11.2)6.6(3.3–12.7)9.1 (3.8–20.4)7.6 (5.0–11.5)
  1. 1Other includes Marwari, Bangali, Jain, Punjabi/Sikh, and Unidentified others