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Table 5 Intermediate outcomes in 50 Classic villages in Rusizi District over 40 months as monitored by Ministry of Health/Africa AHEAD (2013–2017)

From: The value of monitoring data in a process evaluation of hygiene behaviour change in Community Health Clubs to explain findings from a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Rwanda

Survey TypeBase LineMidlineEnd LinePost InterventionFinalSignificance
Research ArmALLCLASSICCLASSICCLASSICCLASSIC
Data collection periodOct-NovApril–MayDecApril–MayFeb-Mar
Year of data collection20132014201420162017
Number of CHC sessions attendedNone8–1319+19+19+
n = 5745n = 738n = 424n = 407n = 644p value a
Drinking water from improved source3.455 (60%)493 (67%)292 (69%)301 (74%)471 (73%)< 0.0001
Adequate drinking water treatment2.131 (37%)398 (53%)367 (87%)341 (91%)562 (89%)< 0.0001
Improved Sanitationb3.816 (67%)40 (5%)51 (12%)285 (71%)528 (83%)< 0.0001
Household ownership of a latrine5.089 (89%)676 (92%)406 (96%)392 (97%)595 (94%)< 0.0001
Zero Open Defecation (ZOD)c5.622 (98%)723 (98%)421 (99%)407 (100%)644 (99%)< 0.0001
Handwashing facility (tippy tap) d539 (9%)107 (15%)321 (76%)249 (61%)< 0.0001
Soap available for handwashinge2.498 (44%)378 (87%)364 (87%)407 (99%)644 (99%)< 0.0001
  1. aMantel-Haenzel test for trend
  2. bPit latrines with a sealed cover
  3. cSanitary disposal of child feces/feces not visible in courtyard
  4. dDue to an oversight hand washing facilities were not monitored in the final survey
  5. eSoap can be kept in the household, not necessarily at the tippy tap
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