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Table 2 Associated factors of zinc deficiency among pregnant women, from individual studies, Ethiopia, 2019

From: Prevalence and associated factors of zinc deficiency among pregnant women and children in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (s)Associated factorsAOR(95%CI)
Gebremedhin S et al. 2011No intake of animal source foods2.51 (1.7,3.72)
Age (≥35 years)2.18 (1.25,3.63)
Illiterate mothers1.7 (1.09,2.6)
Inadequate DDS2.57 (1.57,4.18)
Food insecurity5.07 (3.67,6.99)
Coffee intake1.41 (1.06,1.84)
Regassa K 2017No intake of animal source foods2.11 (1.3,3.42)
Drinking coffee2.12 (1.39,3.42)
Elevated C-reactive protein2.48 (1.45,4.24)
Kumera G et al. 2015Living in a rural area1.92 (1.04,3.56)
Too close birth3.97 (1.3,12.13)
No intakes of animal origin foods2.29 (.35,3.89)
Inadequate DDS2.09 (1.24,3.51)
No nutrition education1.78 (1.1,2.86)
Low serum albumin2.55 (1.4,4.63)
Presence of intestinal parasitic infection2.6 (1.49,4.54)
Mekonen A 2016No nutrition education2.4 (1.01,5.74)
3rd trimester3.76 (1.49,9.49)
No intake of animal-sourced foods3.05 (1.3,7.07)
Inadequate DDS3.59 (1.45,8.96)
  1. DDS diet diversity score, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval