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Table 3 Fitted random intercept models for child health outcomes, BFHS 2007

From: Household composition and child health in Botswana

 StuntingDiarrhoea
   95% CI    95% CI 
VariableCoef.S.E.ORLowerUpperp-valueCoef.S.E.ORLowerUpperp-value
Fixed Part
 Intercept−1.7910.3750.1670.0800.348***−0.2840.4340.7530.3221.762 
Parent (s) in a household
 Both parents (ref.)
 Mother only0.0550.1541.0570.7811.429 −0.4310.1760.6500.4600.918**
 Father only0.0000.2001.0000.6761.480 0.2870.1911.3320.9161.937 
 No parents0.4190.1811.5201.0662.168**−0.4800.2150.6190.4060.943**
Other household members
 Grandparent−0.2530.2410.7760.4841.245 0.1730.1681.1890.8551.652 
 Aunt−0.2970.1320.7430.5740.962**0.1030.1571.1080.8151.508 
 Uncle0.1470.1601.1580.8471.585 −0.3050.1870.7370.5111.063 
 Other relatives−0.3480.1910.7060.4861.027*−0.0920.2290.9120.5821.429 
 not related0.3670.1821.4431.0102.062**−0.2650.2370.7670.4821.221 
Household wealth
 Poorest (ref.)
 Second0.1000.1511.1050.8221.486 −0.1360.1810.8730.6121.245 
 Middle−0.2530.1940.7760.5311.136 −0.2710.2320.7630.4841.202 
 Fourth−0.5940.2130.5520.3640.838***−0.3940.2480.6740.4151.096 
 Richest−0.9170.2480.4000.2460.650***−1.3670.3210.2550.1360.478***
Household size (persons)
 2–3 persons (ref.)
 4–6 persons−0.0690.1930.9330.6391.362 −0.0240.2330.9760.6181.541 
 7+ persons0.0630.2191.0650.6931.636 −0.0350.2630.9660.5771.617 
Number of children aged less than five years
 1 (ref.)
 20.1590.1301.1720.9091.513 −0.1030.1560.9020.6641.225 
 3–40.2280.1691.2560.9021.749 0.1170.1971.1240.7641.654 
 5–60.7700.5162.1600.7865.938 −0.5580.7720.5720.1262.599 
Region
 North (ref.)
 South0.1560.2241.1690.7531.813 −0.1530.2590.8580.5171.426 
 West0.3430.2171.4090.9212.156 0.1360.2461.1460.7071.856 
 East & North East0.5210.2771.6840.9782.898*−0.4300.3350.6510.3371.254 
 Central0.2810.2011.3240.8931.964 −0.1840.2320.8320.5281.311 
Residence
 City/town (ref.)
 Urban Village−0.0040.2220.9960.6451.539 −0.4400.2580.6440.3881.068*
 Rural−0.0180.2280.9820.6281.536 −0.4960.2710.6090.3581.036*
Child’s sex
 Female (ref.)
 Male0.3600.1031.4331.1711.754***−0.1370.1230.8720.6851.110 
Child’s age (months)
 Age0.0780.0131.0811.0541.109***0.0120.0151.0120.9831.042 
 Age^2−0.0020.0000.9980.9980.998***−0.0010.0000.9990.9990.999***
Interactions
 Both parents*grandparent (ref.)
 Motheronly*grandparent0.6940.3662.0020.9774.102*      
 Fatheronly*grandparent0.4980.3591.6450.8143.326       
 Noparents*grandparent−0.5290.3880.5890.2751.260       
Random Part
 Level 3: ea
  Cons/cons0.1270.0731.1350.9841.310*0.1500.1001.1620.9551.413 
 Level 2: HHId
  Cons/cons0.7030.1612.0201.4732.769***0.9220.2252.5141.6183.908***
 Level 1: ChildId
  Bcons.1/bcons.11.0000.0002.7182.7182.718 1.0000.0002.7182.7182.718 
 Statistics
  EA. level VPC (%)3.08     3.44     
  Household-level VPC (%)17.06     21.14     
  Units: EA298     298     
  Units: HHId1804     1892     
  Units: ChildId2531     2713     
  1. Variable ‘parent (s) in a household’ is a categorical variable with four levels, and both parents is the reference category. The variables ‘other house members’ are each dummy (1 for the presence of a household member and 0 for the absence of the household member). ref. reference category. Coef. Coefficient, S.E Standard error, EA Enumeration area, VPC Variance partition coefficient; cons/cons = residual variance at a particular level; OR odds ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval
  2. Legend: * p < .1; ** p < .05; *** p < .01