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Table 2 Means, standard deviation, percent change and effect size for PACE and Calorie-Label groups

From: Physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) labels in worksite cafeterias: effects on physical activity

OutcomePACE-Label GroupCalorie-Label GroupGroup ChangeP-value for intervention effect (GRP x YEAR)P-value for moderator effects (GRP x YEAR x Moderator)
Year 1Year 2% DiffYear 1Year 2% Diff% Diff chgEffect sizeNO COVWith COVSexEducIncRacePA tertiles
Self-Report
 Strength training (times per week)1.2 (1.9)1.5 (2.0)24.61.5 (2.0)1.4 (1.9)−1.726.30.200.160.180.280.180.040.21< 0.001
 MVPA minutes (per week)195.5 (184.5)218.0 (220.6)11.6205.4 (201.5)201.2 (188.2)−2.113.30.140.110.090.700.170.310.004< 0.001
 Exercise minutes (per week)104.7 (126.9)124.4 (152.1)18.8118.9 (146.3)115.0 (139.9)−3.320.90.170.0630.0580.570.240.310.006< 0.001
Accelerometer
 Steps (per day)4816 (1628)4841 (1892)0.55411 (2168)5190 (1919)−4.14.80.120.100.110.680.1970.1970.164< 0.001
 Sedentary minutes (per day)620.7 (49.5)620.0 (55.9)−0.1607.7 (54.9)614.8 (44.6)1.2−1.3−0.150.100.100.560.740.0350.075< 0.001
 MVPA minutes (per day)18.0 (12.6)18.7 (14.6)3.719.6 (14.3)19.2 (13.7)−2.25.80.080.290.340.0950.380.140.370.074
 MVPA bout minutes (per day)8.8 (12.3)9.2 (12.2)4.210.6 (13.1)9.8 (12.2)−7.511.80.090.300.280.160.470.200.260.001
  1. Year 1: baseline year; Year 2: intervention year (PACE labels displayed)
  2. %Diff = ((Y2 – Y1)/Y1)*100
  3. Effect Size = ((PACE Y2 – PACE Y1) – (Calorie Y2 - Calorie Y1))/(Pooled std. Y1)
  4. %Diff Change = (PACE %Diff) - (Calorie %Diff)
  5. With Covariates (COV): age, sex, race, education, and income