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Table 4 Associations between background variables at baseline and CMP at follow-up (n = 153–154) based on logistic regression analysis

From: Worse health status, sleeping problems, and anxiety in 16-year-old students are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain at three-year follow-up

Baseline variablesModel 1
No CMP at follow-up = 0
(n = 115)
CMP at follow-up = 1
(n = 39)
Model 2
No CMP at follow-up = 0
(n = 115)
CMP at follow-up = 1
(n = 38)
OR(95% CI; p-value)OR(95% CI; p-value)
Sex
 Boys1.00 1.00 
 Girls1.67(0.74–3.76; p = 0.217)1.05(0.41–2.67; p = 0.916)
EQ-5D
 EQ-5D ≥ 0.851.00 1.00 
 EQ-5D < 0.854.06(1.83–9.01; p = 0.001)2.04(0.77–5.36; p = 0.149)
Problems initiating sleep
 None to moderate1.00   
 Severe to very severe3.44(1.24–9.54; p = 0.018)  
Problems maintaining sleep
 None to moderate1.00   
 Severe to very severe3.04(0.41–22.62; p = 0.277)  
Problems with early morning awakening
 None to moderate1.00   
 Severe to very severe2.69(0.77–9.44; p = 0.122)  
Problems with non-restorative sleep
 None to moderate1.00   
 Severe to very severe2.60(1.18–5.70; p = 0.018)  
Severe sleeping problems
 No severe sleeping problems1.00 1.00 
 Severe sleeping problems3.63(1.69–7.82; p = 0.001)2.06(0.84–5.07; p = 0.115)
Stress
 Points 1–31.00   
 Points 4–51.75(0.76–4.02; p = 0.187)  
HADS anxiety
 Non-cases1.00 1.00 
 Possible cases4.19(1.74–10.11; p = 0.001)2.31(0.86–6.20; p = 0.095)
 Probable cases3.82(1.17–12.48; p = 0.027)1.27(0.31–5.24; p = 0.740)
HADS depression
 Non-cases1.00   
 Possible cases1.61(0.45–5.72; p = 0.465)  
 Probable cases   
IPAQ
 Low1.00   
 Moderate2.39(0.60–9.58; p = 0.217)  
 High1.64(0.42–6.41; p = 0.476)  
CMP
 No CMP1.00 1.00 
 CMP5.51(2.23–13.61; p < 0.001)2.99(1.09–8.24; p = 0.034)
 Do not know or missing1.45(0.42–4.99; p = 0.556)0.79(0.18–3.49; p = 0.756)
  1. Model 1: A logistic regression analysis in which variables were controlled for sex but otherwise included separately in the analysis
  2. Model 2: A multiple logistic regression analysis. R2 (Nagelkerke) = 0.240 for full model
  3. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval