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Table 3 Associations between background variables at baseline and CMP at baseline (n = 221) based on logistic regression analysis

From: Worse health status, sleeping problems, and anxiety in 16-year-old students are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain at three-year follow-up

Baseline variablesModel 1
No CMP at baseline = 0
(n = 169)
CMP at baseline = 1
(n = 52)
Model 2
No CMP at baseline = 0
(n = 169)
CMP at baseline = 1
(n = 52)
OR(95% CI; p-value)OR(95% CI; p-value)
Sex
 Boys1.00 1.00 
 Girls1.50(0.77–2.95; p = 0.237)0.86(0.39–1.89; p = 0.71)
EQ-5D
 EQ-5D ≥ 0.851.00 1.00 
 EQ-5D < 0.855.04(2.59–9.80; p < 0.001)3.61(1.76–7.41; p < 0.001)
Problems initiating sleep
 None to moderate1.00   
 Severe to very severe2.51(1.09–5.77; p = 0.030)  
Problems maintaining sleep
 None to moderate1.00   
 Severe to very severe1.79(0.57–5.65; p = 0.318)  
Problems with early morning awakening
 None to moderate1.00   
 Severe to very severe2.37(0.85–6.61; p = 0.099)  
Problems with non-restorative sleep
 None to moderate1.00   
 Severe to very severe3.69(1.91–7.13; p < 0.001)  
Severe sleeping problems
 No severe sleeping problems1.00 1.00 
 Severe sleeping problems3.06(1.61–5.83; p = 0.001)1.81(0.86–3.81; p = 0.121)
Stress
 Points 1–31.00 1.00 
 Points 4–52.36(1.17–4.75; p = 0.016)0.79(0.31–2.01; p = 0.617)
HADS anxiety
 Non-cases1.00 1.00 
 Possible cases3.42(1.55–7.57; p = 0.002)2.60(1.08–6.30; p = 0.034)
 Probable cases6.49(2.63–16.02; p < 0.001)3.32(1.02–10.84; p = 0.047)
HADS depression
 Non-cases1.00   
 Possible cases2.76(1.09–7.01; p = 0.033)  
 Probable cases1.83(0.16–20.90; p = 0.625)  
IPAQ
 Low1.00   
 Moderate0.79(0.27–2.33; p = 0.668)  
 High1.60(0.62–4.09; p = 0.331)  
  1. Model 1: A logistic regression analysis in which variables were controlled for sex but otherwise included separately in the analysis
  2. Model 2: A multiple logistic regression analysis. R2 (Nagelkerke) = 0.233 for full model
  3. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval