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Table 1 Results for health status, sleep, stress, HADS, and IPAQ for all students and for boys and girls separately at baseline and at follow-up. Results were analyzed with Student’s t-test and are presented as mean ± SD

From: Worse health status, sleeping problems, and anxiety in 16-year-old students are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain at three-year follow-up

 BaselineFollow-up
All (n = 256) Mean ± SDBoys (n = 87) Mean ± SDGirls (n = 169) Mean ± SDBoys vs. girls p-valueAll (n = 174) Mean ± SDBoys (n = 56) Mean ± SDGirls (n = 118) Mean ± SDBoys vs. girls p-value
Health statusa
 EQ-5D (0.00–1.00)0.84 ± 0.180.87 ± 0.170.83 ± 0.180.0510.84 ± 0.200.89 ± 0.200.81 ± 0.190.022
 NRS-11 (0–100)78.1 ± 17.482.6 ± 15.475.8 ± 17.90.00378.0 ± 17.682.7 ± 17.675.8 ± 17.30.015
Sleeping problemsb (1–5)
 Initiating sleep2.2 ± 1.11.9 ± 1.02.4 ± 1.0<  0.0012.1 ± 1.02.0 ± 1.12.2 ± 1.00.249
 Maintaining sleep1.7 ± 1.01.4 ± 0.81.8 ± 1.00.0071.9 ± 1.11.7 ± 1.02.0 ± 1.20.088
 Early awakening1.6 ± 1.01.6 ± 1.01.7 ± 1.00.8431.7 ± 1.01.6 ± 1.01.8 ± 1.10.400
 Non-restorative sleep2.7 ± 1.22.6 ± 1.32.7 ± 1.20.7042.8 ± 1.22.9 ± 1.22.8 ± 1.10.622
Stressb (1–5)2.5 ± 1.32.2 ± 1.22.7 ± 1.20.0072.7 ± 1.22.4 ± 1.22.8 ± 1.20.072
HADSb (0–21)
 Anxiety6.8 ± 3.55.8 ± 3.07.3 ± 3.7<  0.0017.1 ± 3.86.4 ± 4.27.5 ± 3.60.075
 Depression3.7 ± 2.73.5 ± 2.63.8 ± 2.80.4893.6 ± 3.13.7 ± 2.83.6 ± 3.20.877
IPAQc
 Walking553 ± 624459 ± 558602 ± 6520.083611 ± 622607 ± 635612 ± 6190.964
 MPA547 ± 622573 ± 618534 ± 6250.634614 ± 634824 ± 763516 ± 5400.009
 VPA1689 ± 14682451 ± 15791292 ± 1237<  0.0011784 ± 14962751 ± 15991334 ± 1210<  0.001
 Total PA2790 ± 21113483 ± 21172428 ± 2021<  0.0013009 ± 21344182 ± 22182462 ± 1864<  0.001
 Sitting minutes per day414 ± 221426 ± 226409 ± 2190.562522 ± 218491 ± 216536 ± 2180.201
  1. a Scored from worst to best
  2. b Scored from best to worst
  3. c Walking, moderate physical activity (MPA), vigorous physical activity (VPA), and total physical activity (Total PA) as metabolic equivalent of task (MET) minutes per week