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Table 2 Comparison of Health Belief Model factors among performers and non-performers of BSE

From: Determinants of breast self-examination practice among women in Surabaya, Indonesia: an application of the health belief model

VariablePerforming BSEtdfp
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Severity38.63(8.53)39.10 (8.42)−1.221965.22
Benefits20.27(2.67)18.46 (3.23)13.351963*<.001
Barriers16.34 (4.75)19.52 (5.05)−14.251915*<.001
Cues to action29.38 (4.72)27.88 (5.40)6.481950*<.001
Self-efficacy11.26 (2.06)9.03 (2.56)20.921965*<.001
  1. *Levene’s test indicated unequal variances (F’s > 14.12, p’s < .001) so degrees of freedom were adjusted