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Table 3 Linear regression of cognitive function (total score) on: cardiometabolic indicators (M1); M1 + sociodemographic factors (M2); M2 + behavioral and other risk factors (M3), HAALSI participants, Agincourt, 2014–2015 (N = 3018). For each model (M1-M3), results presented are fully adjusted for all variables included in each model (including all the cardiometabolic indicators)

From: Cognitive function and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in rural South Africa: baseline evidence from the HAALSI study

  M1: cardiometabolic indicators M2: + sociodemographics M3: + behavioral and other risk factors
Beta 95% CI p-value Beta 95% CI p-value Beta 95% CI p-value
Cardiometabolic indicators
 BMIa
  Underweight −1.31 [− 1.94, − 0.69] < 0.001 − 1.08 [− 1.69, − 0.48] < 0.001 − 0.87 [− 1.48, − 0.26] 0.005
  Normal Ref    Ref    Ref   
  Overweight 0.79 [0.45, 1.14] < 0.001 0.59 [0.25, 0.93] 0.001 0.56 [0.22, 0.90] 0.001
  Obese 1.2 [0.84, 1.57] < 0.001 0.82 [0.46, 1.17] < 0.001 0.74 [0.39, 1.10] < 0.001
 Hypertensionb
  Without hypertension Ref    Ref    Ref   
  Hypertension, controlled on Rx 0.4 [−0.04, 0.84] 0.072 0.48 [0.05, 0.90] 0.027 0.53 [0.11, 0.96] 0.013
  Hypertension, uncontrolled not on Rx −0.06 [− 0.38, 0.27] 0.737 − 0.08 [− 0.39, 0.24] 0.638 − 0.04 [− 0.36, 0.27] 0.79
  Hypertension, uncontrolled on Rx 0.13 [−0.29, 0.55] 0.545 0.21 [−0.20, 0.62] 0.316 0.22 [−0.19, 0.62] 0.291
 Dyslipidemia
  No Ref    Ref    Ref   
  Yes 0.08 [−0.19, 0.36] 0.564 0.07 [−0.20, 0.33] 0.628 0.06 [−0.20, 0.33] 0.649
 Diabetesc
  Without diabetes Ref    Ref    Ref   
  Diabetes, controlled on Rx −0.8 [−1.75, 0.15] 0.098 −1.08 [−2.00, −0.17] 0.021 −1.11 [−2.01, − 0.20] 0.017
  Diabetes, uncontrolled not on Rx −0.74 [−1.34, − 0.14] 0.015 − 0.69 [− 1.27, − 0.11] 0.02 −0.75 [− 1.33, − 0.18] 0.01
  Diabetes, uncontrolled on Rx − 0.22 [− 1.03, 0.59] 0.596 −0.3 [− 1.08, 0.48] 0.444 − 0.26 [− 1.03, 0.52] 0.513
 Stroke
  No          
  Yes −1.19 [−2.04, −0.35] 0.006 − 1.16 [− 1.98, − 0.34] 0.005 −1.11 [− 1.92, − 0.30] 0.007
Cardiometabolic-related behavioral risk factors
 Alcohol frequency
  Does not currently drink        Ref   
  Less than daily        −0.41 [−0.79, −0.03] 0.033
  5–6 days per week/ daily        0.35 [−0.26, 0.96] 0.262
 Smoking status
  Never        Ref.   
  Former        −0.67 [−1.08, −0.25] 0.002
  Current        −0.84 [−1.37, − 0.31] 0.002
  1. M1: Adjusted for age and sex
  2. M2: Adjusted for age, sex, nationality, marital status, employment status, education, wealth asset index
  3. M3: Adjusted for age, sex, nationality, marital status, employment status, education, wealth asset index, HIV and ART status, and CES-D score
  4. aobese ≥30 BMI; overweight BMI 25 to < 30; normal BMI 18.5 to < 25; underweight BMI < 18.5
  5. bWithout hypertension: having a mean systolic blood pressure of < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of < 90 mmHg and reported not on treatment; hypertension, controlled on Rx: having a mean systolic blood pressure of < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of < 90 mmHg and reported on treatment; Hypertension, uncontrolled not on Rx: having a mean systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mmHg and reported not on treatment; Hypertension, uncontrolled on Rx: having a mean systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mmHg and reported on treatment
  6. cWithout diabetes: having random glucose < 11.1 mmol/L and reported not on treatment; diabetes, controlled on Rx: having random glucose < 11.1 mmol/L and reported on treatment; diabetes, uncontrolled not on Rx: having elevated random glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L and reported not on treatment; diabetes, uncontrolled on Rx: having elevated random glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L and reported on treatment