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Table 3 Linear regression of cognitive function (total score) on: cardiometabolic indicators (M1); M1 + sociodemographic factors (M2); M2 + behavioral and other risk factors (M3), HAALSI participants, Agincourt, 2014–2015 (N = 3018). For each model (M1-M3), results presented are fully adjusted for all variables included in each model (including all the cardiometabolic indicators)

From: Cognitive function and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in rural South Africa: baseline evidence from the HAALSI study

 M1: cardiometabolic indicatorsM2: + sociodemographicsM3: + behavioral and other risk factors
Beta95% CIp-valueBeta95% CIp-valueBeta95% CIp-value
Cardiometabolic indicators
 BMIa
  Underweight−1.31[− 1.94, − 0.69]< 0.001− 1.08[− 1.69, − 0.48]< 0.001− 0.87[− 1.48, − 0.26]0.005
  NormalRef  Ref  Ref  
  Overweight0.79[0.45, 1.14]< 0.0010.59[0.25, 0.93]0.0010.56[0.22, 0.90]0.001
  Obese1.2[0.84, 1.57]< 0.0010.82[0.46, 1.17]< 0.0010.74[0.39, 1.10]< 0.001
 Hypertensionb
  Without hypertensionRef  Ref  Ref  
  Hypertension, controlled on Rx0.4[−0.04, 0.84]0.0720.48[0.05, 0.90]0.0270.53[0.11, 0.96]0.013
  Hypertension, uncontrolled not on Rx−0.06[− 0.38, 0.27]0.737− 0.08[− 0.39, 0.24]0.638− 0.04[− 0.36, 0.27]0.79
  Hypertension, uncontrolled on Rx0.13[−0.29, 0.55]0.5450.21[−0.20, 0.62]0.3160.22[−0.19, 0.62]0.291
 Dyslipidemia
  NoRef  Ref  Ref  
  Yes0.08[−0.19, 0.36]0.5640.07[−0.20, 0.33]0.6280.06[−0.20, 0.33]0.649
 Diabetesc
  Without diabetesRef  Ref  Ref  
  Diabetes, controlled on Rx−0.8[−1.75, 0.15]0.098−1.08[−2.00, −0.17]0.021−1.11[−2.01, − 0.20]0.017
  Diabetes, uncontrolled not on Rx−0.74[−1.34, − 0.14]0.015− 0.69[− 1.27, − 0.11]0.02−0.75[− 1.33, − 0.18]0.01
  Diabetes, uncontrolled on Rx− 0.22[− 1.03, 0.59]0.596−0.3[− 1.08, 0.48]0.444− 0.26[− 1.03, 0.52]0.513
 Stroke
  No         
  Yes−1.19[−2.04, −0.35]0.006− 1.16[− 1.98, − 0.34]0.005−1.11[− 1.92, − 0.30]0.007
Cardiometabolic-related behavioral risk factors
 Alcohol frequency
  Does not currently drink      Ref  
  Less than daily      −0.41[−0.79, −0.03]0.033
  5–6 days per week/ daily      0.35[−0.26, 0.96]0.262
 Smoking status
  Never      Ref.  
  Former      −0.67[−1.08, −0.25]0.002
  Current      −0.84[−1.37, − 0.31]0.002
  1. M1: Adjusted for age and sex
  2. M2: Adjusted for age, sex, nationality, marital status, employment status, education, wealth asset index
  3. M3: Adjusted for age, sex, nationality, marital status, employment status, education, wealth asset index, HIV and ART status, and CES-D score
  4. aobese ≥30 BMI; overweight BMI 25 to < 30; normal BMI 18.5 to < 25; underweight BMI < 18.5
  5. bWithout hypertension: having a mean systolic blood pressure of < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of < 90 mmHg and reported not on treatment; hypertension, controlled on Rx: having a mean systolic blood pressure of < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of < 90 mmHg and reported on treatment; Hypertension, uncontrolled not on Rx: having a mean systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mmHg and reported not on treatment; Hypertension, uncontrolled on Rx: having a mean systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mmHg and reported on treatment
  6. cWithout diabetes: having random glucose < 11.1 mmol/L and reported not on treatment; diabetes, controlled on Rx: having random glucose < 11.1 mmol/L and reported on treatment; diabetes, uncontrolled not on Rx: having elevated random glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L and reported not on treatment; diabetes, uncontrolled on Rx: having elevated random glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L and reported on treatment