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Table 3 Characteristics of analytical studies of associations of mental disorders and neurotropic parasitic diseases

From: Associations of mental disorders and neurotropic parasitic diseases: a meta-analysis in developing and emerging countries

ReferenceContinentSubjects typeOriginal diseaseAssociated diseaseStudy DesignPositive (n)Total (N)ORDiagnostic methodF/MAge (case / control)
Daryani et al. [49]
Trop Biomed, 2010
AsiaNon-hospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control28
25
80
99
ELISA IgG & IgM” (Germany)
ELISA reader (USA)
32.95 ± 10.05
33.76 ± 10.50
Alipour et al. [45]
Iran J Parasitol, 2011
AsiaHospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control42
23
62
62
IFA and ELISA “IgG” (Denmark)
ELISA reader (BioTek, USA)
59/6537.54 ± 9.75
37.24 ± 10.24
Karabulut et al. [56]
J Chin Med Assoc, 2015
AsiaHospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control85
60
1008ELISA Kits (Spain)
Triturus system (Spain)
60/8541.73 ± 12.07
40.45 ± 9.49
Khademvatan et al. [58]
Jundishapur J Microbiol, 2014
AsiaNon-hospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control34
53
100
200
ELISA “IgG (USA)139/16136.39 ± 10.28 25.04
Hamidinejat et al. [53]
Int J Infect Dis, 2010
AsiaHospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control98
94
2,99ELISA kits “IgG and M” (USA)33
(Case & Control)
Tamer et al. [62]
Adv Ther, 2008
AsiaHospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control16
5
40
37
ELISA (Germany)Cas: 33
Control: –
Alvarado-Esquivel et al. [47]
Parasitol Int, 2011
AmericaHospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control50
150
4,44EIA kit “Ig G & M” (USA)45.12 ± 11.5
45.1 ± 11.4
Cetinkaya et al. [48]
Schizophr Bull, 2007
AsiaNon-hospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control66
33
100
100
ELISA kit “Ig G” (France)103/9737.25 ± 11.51
37.3 ± 5.78
Omar et al. [60]
Korean J Parasitol, 2015
AsiaNon-hospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control52
10
101
55
ELISA PCR (Qpcr) (Germany)74/8241.1 ± 10.9
45.3 ± 14.5
Esshili et al. [51]
Psychiatry Res, 2016
AfricaNon-hospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control246
117
2,54ELISA kit “IgG” (France)
ELISA reader
89/27440.5 ± 10.2 38.6 ± 10.4
Juanah et al. [54]
Am J Infect Dis, 2013
AsiaHospitalisedSchizophreniaT. gondii infectionCase - Control88
88
2,01EIA “IgG & M” (Italy)
Microtiter plate reader (DYNEX, MRX)
66/11039.42
(Case & Control)
Kheirandish et al. [59]
Arch Clin Infect Dis, 2016
AsiaHospitalisedSchizophrenia and bipolar disordersToxoplasmosisCase - Control49 and 54
65 and 65
85
170
EIA “IgG”
Microplate reader (USA)
85/15037.2
(Case & Control)
Emelia et al. [50]
Trop Biomed, 2012
AsiaHospitalisedSchizophreniaToxocariasisCase - Control54
49
144
144
ELISA “Ig G” (USA)
ELISA reader (SKANIT Software)
Alvarado-Esquivel et al. [46]
Int Int J Biomed Sci, 2014
AmericaHospitalisedSchizophreniaToxocariasisCase - Control1
3
50
100
EIA “IgG” (U.S.A.)45.12 ± 11.5
45.5 ± 13.1
Kaplan et al. [55]
Yonsei Yonsei Med J, 2008
AsiaHospitalisedSchizophreniaToxocariasisCase - Control45
2
98
100
ELISA kit “IgG & M” (Germany)
ELISA microtiter plate reader
95/10338 ± 11
35 ± 8
Khademvatan et al. [57]
J Med Sci Faisalabad, 2013
AsiaHospitalisedBipolar disorders (I)ToxoplasmaCase - Control117
200
0,78ELISA “IgG & M” (USA)162/15533.93 ± 11.87 33.88 ± 11.45
  1. Description of data:
  2. Kheirandish et al., [59]: Cases = 49 patients with schizophrenia and 54 patients with bipolar disorders, Controls = 85 for schizophrenia cases and 85 for bipolar disorder cases
  3. T. gondii Toxoplasma gondii, GHQ General Health Questionnaire, ELISA Immunosorbant Enzyme-Linked Assay, IFA Immunofluorescent Assay, EIA Enzyme Immuno Assay Enzyme Immuno Assay, PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction, qPCR quantitave Polymerase Chain Reaction, F Female, M Male, Age in years