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Table 3 Within Group Differences among Simple Suppers Intervention Children Participants (4- to 10-Years Old) in Outcomes at Baseline (T0), Post-Intervention (T1), and Follow-up (T2)

From: Child diet and health outcomes of the simple suppers program: a 10-week, 2-group quasi-experimental family meals trial

OutcomesT0Δ T0 to T1P-valueeΔ T1 to T2P-valueeΔ T0 to T2P-valuee
Dietary Intakea,b, mean (SD)
 Total Fruitc (servings/day)1.68 (1.2)0.03 (2.1)0.910.13 (1.6)0.280.16 (1.4)0.32
 Whole Fruit (servings/day)1.15 (0.9)0.18 (1.8)0.43−0.17 (1.6)0.610.01 (1.1)0.70
 Total Vegetable (servings/day)1.69 (1.4)0.36 (1.4)0.09−0.37 (1.4)0.71−0.01 (1.3)0.67
 Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (servings/day)0.41 (0.6)−0.02 (0.9)0.880.00 (1.0)0.89−0.02 (0.8)0.80
 Healthy Eating Index Total Score (0–100)52.24 (10.5)0.97 (16.1)0.211.90 (10.8)0.272.87 (10.1)0.13
Anthropometrics and Biometrics, mean (SD)
 Body Mass Index z-score0.68 (1.1)−0.16 (0.6)0.030.06 (1.1)0.36−0.10 (0.9)0.13
 Waist circumference z-score0.76 (0.9)0.03 (0.6)0.66−0.15 (0.9)0.06−0.12 (0.7)0.16
 Systolic Blood Pressure z-score1.41 (1.3)−0.14 (1.6)0.50−0.51 (1.6)0.04−0.66 (1.3)0.01
 Diastolic Blood Pressure z-score1.31 (1.4)−0.22 (1.9)0.27−0.27 (1.2)0.45−0.49 (1.5)0.01
 Food Preparation Skill Abilityd, mean (SD)22.03 (5.1)4.86 (5.1)< 0.0010.04 (4.6)0.934.90 (4.8)< 0.001
Family Meals (meals/week), mean (SD)
 Family dinner frequency4.77 (2.1)−0.35 (2.8)0.260.19 (2.0)0.51−0.16 (2.1)0.56
 Family breakfast frequency2.66 (2.3)0.09 (3.0)0.661.08 (2.4)0.0071.24 (2.2)0.001
 Family meal with TV1.93 (1.9)0.22 (2.4)0.590.03 (1.9)0.720.20 (1.9)0.71
 Family meals in a dining area4.09 (2.4)0.22 (2.4)0.390.33 (2.0)0.320.59 (1.8)0.04
  1. aDaily intake averaged across caregiver-assisted, nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls collected using USDA five-step multiple-pass method
  2. bParticipant completion of 24-h dietary recalls at T0: 0 recalls (7%); 1 recall (68%); 2 recalls (12%); 3 recalls (13%). Participant completion of 24-h dietary recalls at T1: 0 recalls (39%); 1 recall (53%); 2 recalls (7%); 3 recalls (1%). Participant completion of 24-h dietary recalls at T2: 0 recalls (59%); 1 recall (37%); 2 recalls (4%); 3 recalls (0%)
  3. cTotal fruit = whole fruit + 100% fruit juice
  4. dThe stem statement was: “When we prepare food at home, my child is able to …”. Questions were situated on a 4-point scale (1 = Strongly Disagree (1 pt); 4 = Strongly Agree (4 pt)). A sum score was calculated (1–32)
  5. eWithin-group differences examined using paired t-test
  6. All p-values that are signicant (<0.05) are bolded.