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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) of having better knowledge, more appropriate attitudes and better practices in relation to antibiotic use

From: Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to antibiotic use among community members of the Rupandehi District in Nepal

VariablesKnowledge levelAttitudes levelPractices level
Crude ORa (95% CI)Adjusted ORa (95% CI)p = valueCrude ORa (95% CI)Adjusted ORa (95% CI)p = valueCrude ORa (95% CI)Adjusted ORa (95% CI)p = value
Gender
 Male0.973 (0.572, 1.657)0.867 (0.404, 1.859)0.7141.709 (0.971, 3.009)1.672 (0.844, 3.311)0.1410.487 (0.272, 0.870)0.394 (0.187, 0.829)0.014
 Female111111
Area of Residence
 Rural0.321 (0.183, 0.562)0.317 (0.149, 0.676)0.0030.517 (0.292, 0.915)0.587 (0.095, 1.492)0.1190.336 (0.188, 0.601)0.553 (0.281, 1.085)0.085
 Urban111111
Age Group (Yr.)
 15–243.621 (1.341, 9.777)0.271 (0.060, 1.212)0.0881.301 (0.475, 3.561)0.376 (0.95, 1.492)0.1647.227 (2.579, 20.254)1.272 (0.313, 5.163)0.736
 25–349.154 (3.880, 21.595)2.714 (0.861, 8.558)0.0882.765 (1.262, 6.057)1.377 (0.480, 3.945)0.5523.489 (1.479, 8.233)1.027 (0.324, 3.256)0.964
 35–444.021 (1.902, 8.502)1.837 (0.741, 4.558)0.1891.096 (0.525, 2.288)0.669 (0.278, 1.611)0.3702.278 (1.024, 5.067)1.089 (0.430, 2.756)0.858
 44+11 11 11 
Education Level
 Below secondary level0.093 (0.042, 0.207)0.035 (0.010, 0.127)< 0.0010.152 (0.071, 0.323)0.147 (0.053, 0.411)< 0.0010.093 (0.042, 0.207)0.098 (0.033, 0.293)< 0.001
 High school & intermediate0.143 (0.062, 0.331)0.285 (0.090, 0.906)0.0330.332 (0.153, 0.721)0.337 (0.140, 0.812)0.0150.143 (0.062, 0.331)0.155 (0.061, 0.939)< 0.001
 Bachelor degree and above11 11 11 
  1. OR: Odds ratio.
  2. aOR for included explanatory factors: adjusted with gender, residence, age and education
  3. Reference categories: 1 and better or more appropriate
  4. Respondents scoring higher than the median were assessed as having “better knowledge”, “more appropriate attitudes” and “better practices” relating to antibiotic use.