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Table 2 Processes of change in terms of experimental and behavioral processes (a brief description)

From: Effectiveness of digital health using the transtheoretical model to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in impaired glucose tolerance patients: protocol for a randomized control trial

Experiential processes
 Consciousness raising (CR)The individual seeks increased knowledge about the causes, consequences and cures for their problem behavior.From precontemplation to contemplation
 Dramatic relief (DR)The individual’s emotions about the problem behavior and possible solutions are evoked.
 Environmental reevaluation (ER)The impact that the individual’s problem behavior has on their environment is reevaluated.
 Social liberation (SOL)Attempts are made to increase alternatives for the individual’s former problem behavior. 
 Self-reevaluation (SR)Cognitions and emotions regarding the individual with respect to their problem behavior are reevaluated.From contemplation to preparation and action
Behavioral processes
 Self-liberation (SEL)The individual has the belief that he can change and commits to it by choosing a course of action.
 Helping relationships (HR)The individual seeks trust and open discussion about the problem behavior as well as support for the healthy behavior change.Action to maintenance
 Counter-conditioning (CC)The individual substitutes positive behaviors for the individual’s problem behavior. 
 Reinforcement management (RM)Steps or changes made by the individual are rewarded when in a positive direction or punished when in a negative direction. 
 Stimulus control (SC)Stimuli that may cue a lapse back to the problem behavior are avoided and prompts for healthier alternatives are inserted. 
Adapted from reference [31]