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Table 4 Factors associated with stigma towards tuberculosis in the general population

From: Stigma matters in ending tuberculosis: Nationwide survey of stigma in Ethiopia

VariablesStigma HighStigma LowCOR (95% CI)AOR (95%CI)
# (%)# (%)
GenderMale293 (37.4)490 (62.6)0.91 (0.74–1.1)NA
Female352 (39.8)533 (60.2)1
EducationNot able to read and write220 (46.5)253 (53.5)11
Read and write only48 (40.7)70 (59.3)0.79(0.52–1.19)0.9(.57–1.38)
Primary180 (37.0)306 (63.0)0.68 (0.52–0.88)0.84(.63–1.11)
Secondary143 (36.8)246 (63.2)0.67 (0.51–0.88)0.92 (0.68–1.25)
Above secondary54 (26.7)148 (73.3)0.42 (0.29–0.6)0.58 (0.39–0.87)a
WealthLowest122 (39.9)184 (60.1)1.53 (1.11–2.11)0.83 (0.55–1.25)
Second146 (45.3)176 (54.7)1.91 (1.4–2.62)0.97 (0.65–1.43)
Third137 (40.7)200 (59.3)1.58 (1.15–2.16)0.88 (0.61–1.28)
Fourth132 (38.2)214 (61.8)1.42 (1.04–1.95)0.85 (0.6–1.2)
Highest108 (30.3)249 (69.7)11
SettingRural314 (42.5)425 (57.5)1.33 (1.1–1.63)0.95 (0.75–1.21)
Urban331 (35.6)598 (64.4)11
Knowledge scoreHigh280 (33.5)555 (66.5)0.65 (0.53–0.79)0.62 (0.49–0.78)a
Low365 (43.8)468 (56.2)11
RegionOromia192 (58.4)137 (41.6)11
Amhara121 (36.1)214 (63.9)0.4 (0.3–0.55)0.35 (0.25–0.49)a
SNNP81 (25.5)237 (74.5)0.24 (0.18–0.34)0.23 (0.16–0.32)a
Tigray95 (53.7)82 (46.3)0.83 (0.57–1.19)0.8 (0.55–1.17)
Benshangul Gumuz43 (48.3)46 (51.7)0.67 (0.42–1.07)0.61 (0.37–0.98)a
Gambella19 (23.2)63 (76.8)0.22 (0.12–0.38)0.22 (0.12–0.38)a
Addis Ababa22 (12.7)151 (87.3)0.1 (0.06–0.17)0.1 (0.06–0.17)a
Dire Dawa35 (43.2)46 (56.8)0.54 (0.33–0.89)0.54 (0.33–0.91)a
Harari37 (44.0)47 (56.0)0.56 (0.35–0.91)0.54 (0.32–0.88)a
  1. aStatistically significant. The study participants were grouped as having high and low stigma score using the mean stigma score as a cut-off point