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Table 6 Predictors of childhood obesity (multivariate) (N = 285)

From: Childhood obesity in urban Ghana: evidence from a cross-sectional survey of in-school children aged 5–16 years

VariablecOR (95% C.I.)p-valueaOR (95% C.I.)p-value
Age of child (years)
 5–10 (ref)1 1 
 11–167.60 (1.29–24.94)0.032**6.07 (1.17–21.45)0.025**
Father’s education
 No education (ref)1 1 
 Basic1.93 (0.73–5.09)0.1851.46 (0.51–4.15)0.483
 Secondary3.86 (1.52–9.78)0.004**2.97 (1.09–8.08)0.032**
 Tertiary4.20 (1.67–10.59)0.002**3.46 (1.27–9.42)0.015**
Sports activity per weeka
  < 3 days (ref)1 1 
  > 3 days0.58 (0.36–0.95)0.030**0.56 (0.33–0.96)0.034**
Regularity of fizzy drinks intakeb
 Hardly or never (ref)1 1 
 Some days2.39 (1.06–5.38)0.035**2.09 (0.84–5.16)0.112
 Most days3.36 (1.60–7.06)0.001**2.84 (1.24–6.52)0.014**
Sleep hours per day
 Less than 5 h (ref)1 1 
 5–8 h0.66 (0.31–1.41)0.2860.70 (0.31–1.57)0.391
 8+ h0.32 (0.16–0.63)0.001**0.38 (0.19–0.79)0.009**
  1. aSports activity was defined as engaging in any of the following: playing football, basketball, tennis, volley ball and ampe as well as running and cycling)
  2. Ampe is a simple jumping game played by school-age children (mostly girls), in Ghana and neighbouring countries and usually involving two or more players and requires no equipment
  3. bFizzy drinks were defined as non-alcoholic soft drinks that contain carbonated water, a sweetener (sweetener may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a sugar substitute, or some combination of these), and a natural or artificial flavouring
  4. **p < 0.05; cOR Crude odds ratio, aOR Adjusted odds ratio - aOR for each observation was derived a model which included all variables in the table; CI Confidence interval, ref Reference category