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Table 3 Univariate analysis of treatment perceptions by smartphone ownership among individuals receiving treatment for tuberculosis in San Diego, San Francisco, and New York City between 2015-2016a

From: Requiring smartphone ownership for mHealth interventions: who could be left out?

  Owns a Smartphone? 
VariableTotalNoYesp valueb
Having a DOT worker come to watch me take my TB medication makes me feel…, n (%) c    
Like I am not trustworthy   0.474
 No143 (95.3%)43 (93.5%)100 (96.2%) 
 Yes7 (4.7%)3 (6.5%)4 (3.9%) 
Cared for   0.001
 No143 (95.3%)40 (87.0%)103 (99.0%) 
 Yes7 (4.7%)6 (13.0%)1 (1.0%) 
I don’t mind it   0.117
 No86 (57.3%)22 (47.8%)64 (61.5%) 
 Yes64 (42.7%)24 (52.2%)40 (38.5%) 
Patronized   0.65
 No145 (96.7%)44 (95.7%)101 (97.1%) 
 Yes5 (3.3%)2 (4.4%)3 (2.9%) 
Embarrassed   0.84
 No138 (92.0%)42 (91.3%)96 (92.3%) 
 Yes12 (8.0%)4 (2.7%)8 (5.3%) 
Practice days needed to learn to use VDOT application, mean (SD)1.8 (3.0)1.5 (1.4)1.9 (3.5)0.591
Preferred monitoring method, n (%)   0.111
 VDOT105 (84.0%)34 (89.5%)71 (81.6%) 
 In-person DOT1 (0.8%)1 (2.6%)0 (0.0%) 
 No preference19 (15.2%)3 (7.9%)16 (18.4%) 
Rate the amount of contact with healthcare worker during VDOT, n (%)   0.034
 Too much7 (5.6%)0 (0.0%)7 (8.0%) 
 Just enough112 (89.6)34 (89.5%)78 (89.7%) 
Not enough6 (4.8%)4 (10.5%)2 (2.3%) 
Rate the ease of using VDOT, n (%)   0.691
 Very easy97 (78.9%)29 (76.3%)68 (80.0%) 
 Somewhat easy22 (17.9%)7 (18.4%)15 (17.6%) 
 Somewhat difficult4 (3.3%)2 (5.3%)2 (3.4%) 
Level of satisfaction with TB monitoring via VDOT, n (%)   0.679
 Very satisfied87 (69.6%)25 (65.8%)62 (71.3%) 
 Somewhat satisfied23 (18.4%)9 (23.7%)14 (16.1%) 
 Neutral/indifferent6 (4.8%)1 (2.6%)5 (5.7%) 
 Somewhat or very dissatisfied9 (7.2%)3 (7.9%)6 (6.9%) 
  1. aAbbreviations: VDOT, video directly observed therapy; DOT, directly observed therapy; TB, tuberculosis
  2. bP-values are based on Chi-square tests, Fisher’s Exact test, or Wilcoxon rank sum test and examine overall significance of differences between smartphone ownership within the groups.
  3. cThis variable was assessed at baseline prior to VDOT use. All other variables were assessed at follow-up after VDOT use
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