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Table 1 Univariate analysis of baseline characteristics by smartphone ownership among individuals receiving treatment for tuberculosis in San Diego, San Francisco, and New York City, 2015-2016a

From: Requiring smartphone ownership for mHealth interventions: who could be left out?

 Owns a smartphone? 
VariableTotalNoYesOdds Ratio (95% CI)bp-valuec
Study Site, n (%)    0.479
 San Diego54 (35.8%)14 (30.4%)40 (38.1%)1.0 
 San Francisco49 (32.5%)18 (39.1%)31 (29.5%)1.66 (0.72, 3.85) 
 New York City48 (31.8%)14 (30.4%)34 (32.4%)1.18 (0.49, 2.81) 
Age (yrs), mean (SD)40.7 (16.0)52.3 (16.7)35.6 (12.8)1.08 (1.05, 1.11)< 0.001
Sex    0.081
 Female62 (41.1%)14 (30.4%)48 (45.7%)1.0 
 Male89 (58.9%)32 (69.6%)57 (54.3%)1.93 (0.92, 4.02) 
Education, n (%)    < 0.001
> High school62 (41.6%)9 (19.6%)53 (51.5%)1.0 
High school or less87 (58.4%)37 (80.4%)50 (48.5%)4.35 (1.92, 10.0) 
Country of Birth, n (%)    0.780
 United States35 (23.2%)11 (23.9%)24 (22.9%)1.0 
 Mexico19 (12.6%)7 (15.2%)12 (11.4%)1.27 (0.39, 4.12) 
 Other97 (64.2%)28 (60.9%)69 (65.7%)0.89 (0.38, 2.05) 
Race, n (%)    0.388
 African American/Black20 (13.2%)6 (13.0%)14 (13.3%)1.0 
 Caucasian/White10 (6.6%)3 (6.5%)7 (6.7%)1.0 (0.19, 5.24) 
 Latino45 (29.8%)13 (28.3%)32 (30.5%)0.95 (0.30, 3.00) 
 Asian68 (45.0%)19 (41.3%)49 (46.7%)0.91 (0.30, 2.70) 
 Otherd8 (5.3%)5 (10.9%)3 (2.9%)3.89 (0.70, 21.7 
Annual income, n (%)    0.021
  > =$10,00071 (50.4%)16 (36.4%)55 (56.7%)1.0 
  < $10,00070 (49.6%)28 (63.6%)42 (43.3%)2.29 (1.10, 4.77) 
Has health insurance, n (%)    0.276
 No31 (20.7%)12 (26.1%)19 (18.3%)1.0 
 Yes119 (79.3%)34 (73.9%)85 (81.7%)0.63 (0.28, 1.45) 
Where did participant live at time of study?, n (%)    0.365
 Own home or apartment94 (62.3%)25 (54.3%)69 (65.7%)1.0 
 Other person’s home or apartment50 (33.1%)19 (41.3%)31 (29.5%)1.69 (0.81, 3.52) 
 Othere7 (4.6%)2 (4.3%)5 (4.8%)1.10 (0.20, 6.06) 
Hours worked per week, mean (SD)23.3 (20.6)16.8 (19.3)25.9 (20.7)0.98 (0.96, 0.996)0.030
TB risk factors, n (%)     
Ever a cigarette smoker    0.357
 No84 (55.6%)23 (50.0%)61 (58.1%)1.0 
 Yes67 (44.4%)23 (50.0%)44 (41.9%)1.39 (0.69, 2.78) 
Smoked marijuana in past 6 months    0.379
 No139 (92.1%)41 (89.1%)98 (93.1%)1.0 
 Yes12 (7.9%)5 (10.9%)7 (6.7%)1.70 (0.51, 5.74) 
Ever injected drugs    0.546
 No149 (98.7%)45 (97.8%)104 (99.0%)1.0 
 Yes2 (1.3%)1 (2.2%)1 (1.0%)2.31 (0.14, 37.77) 
Ever incarcerated    0.659
 No140 (92.7%)42 (91.3%)98 (93.3%)1.0 
 Yes11 (7.3%)4 (8.7%)7 (6.7%)1.33 (0.37, 4.80) 
Used alcohol < 1 time per month in the past 6 months    0.458
 No108 (72.0%)35 (76.1%)73 (70.2%)1.0 
 Yes42 (28.0%)11 (23.9%)31 (29.8%)0.74 (0.33, 1.64) 
  1. aAbbreviations: VDOT, video directly observed therapy; DOT, directly observed therapy; TB, tuberculosis.
  2. bOdds ratios and confidence intervals were computed using simple logistic regression analysis.
  3. cP-values are based on Chi-square tests, Fisher’s Exact test, or Wilcoxon test and examine overall significance of differences between smartphone ownership within the groups.
  4. dOther includes: Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Alaskan Native, American Indian, or Mixed.
  5. eOther includes: Hotel or rooming house, shelter, welfare, boarding home
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