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Table 5 Baseline socio-demography, physical characteristics and knowledge, attitudes and practice scores toward whole grains among children who enrolled in baseline recruitment (n = 83)

From: GReat-Child Trial™ based on social cognitive theory improved knowledge, attitudes and practices toward whole grains among Malaysian overweight and obese children

  Total (n = 83) Intervention (n = 40) Control (n = 43) p-value
Age; mean ± SD 10.6 ± 0.6 10.6 ± 0.6 10.6 ± 0.6 0.882
Sex     0.219
Boys; n (%) 44 (53.0) 24 (60.0) 20 (46.5)  
Girls; n (%) 39 (47.0) 16 (40.0) 23 (53.5)  
Household income; mean ± SD 3977.1 ± 1759.6 4467.5 ± 2229.5 3520.9 ± 993.7 0.159
Low (< RM2300); n (%) 7 (8.4) 4 (10.0) 3 (7.0) 0.134
Medium (RM2300-RM5599); n (%) 67 (80.7) 29 (72.5) 38 (88.4)  
High (≥RM5600); n (%) 9 (10.9) 7 (17.5) 2 (4.6)  
Physical characteristics
Weight (kg); mean ± SD 47.0 ± 11.9 50.1 ± 13.5 44.1 ± 9.5 0.754
Height (cm); mean ± SD 139.1 ± 7.2 141.3 ± 7.9 137.0 ± 5.9 0.533
BMI-for-age z-score; mean ± SD 2.3 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 0.8 0.106
Knowledge, attitudes and practices’ scores toward whole grain
Knowledge; mean ± SD 6.8 ± 1.8 7.1 ± 1.8 6.4 ± 1.8 0.294
Attitudes; mean ± SD 47.1 ± 6.5 45.7 ± 6.7 48.5 ± 6.1 0.538
Practices; mean ± SD 16.7 ± 2.2 16.7 ± 1.9 16.8 ± 2.4 0.815
  1. Age, weight, height, BMI-for-age z-score, household income (in mean ± SD), knowledge, attitudes and practices toward whole grains variables were tested using Independent t-test; Sex and household income (in categories) variables were tested using Chi-square test; SD: standard deviation; Full marks for knowledge domain = 15 marks; Full marks for attitudes domain = 75 marks; Full marks for practice domain = 50 marks