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Table 3 Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices and their association with stunting, underweight, and wasting in Malawian children, 2015–2016

From: Maternal determinants of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding and their association with child undernutrition in Malawi (2015–2016)

IYCF IndicatorsAgeStuntingUnderweightWasting
Early initiation of breastfeedinga0–230.84 (0.63–1.13)1.13 (0.73–1.74)1.05 (0.55–1.98)
Exclusive breastfeeding under six monthsb0–51.63 (0.91–2.93)1.22 (0.47–3.18)0.37 (0.11–1.41)
Continued breastfeeding at one yearc12–151.95 (0.65–5.87)0.71 (0.20–2.53)0.69 (0.08–6.22)
Minimum dietary diversityd6–120.99 (0.56–1.75)1.78 (0.86–3.67)0.96 (0.53–1.74)
13–230.73 (0.49–1.09)1.08 (0.61–1.88)1.15 (0.46–2.86)
Minimum meal frequencye6–121.00 (0.63–1.59)1.25 (0.67–2.32)0.94 (0.44–2.05)
13–230.86 (0.57–1.30)0.41 (0.21–0.79)*1.54 (0.63–3.86)
Minimum acceptable dietf6–121.06 (0.52–2.16)1.92 (0.72–5.13)0.62 (0.16–2.45)
13–230.62 (0.31–1.24)0.23 (0.08–0.65)*0.91 (0.24–3.41)
Consumption of iron-rich foodsg6–120.89 (0.34–2.33)0.98 (0.17–5.54)1.11 (0.31–4.01)
13–231.26 (0.78–2.05)0.82 (0.40–1.67)0.51 (0.12–2.24)
  1. Results expressed as adjusted odds ratio AOR (95% Confidence Interval); *p-value < 0.01
  2. Adjusted for clustering, child age, child sex, wealth index, and maternal education
  3. aChildren born in the last 24 months who were breastfed within 1 hour of birth
  4. bInfants 0–5 months of age who were fed exclusively with breast milk (no formula or complementary foods) the previous day
  5. cChildren 12–15 months of age who were fed breastmilk the previous day
  6. dChildren 6–23 months of age who received foods from 4 or more food groups the previous day
  7. eBreastfed and non-breastfed children 6–23 months of age who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (but also including milk feeds for non-breastfed children) the minimum number of times or more the previous day (Minimum is defined as: 2 times for breastfed infants (6–8 months), 3 times for breastfed children (9–23 months), 4 times for non-breastfed children (6–23 months)
  8. fBreastfed children 6–23 months of age who had at least the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day and non-breastfed children 6–23 months of age who received at least 2 milk feedings and had at least the minimum dietary diversity not including milk feeds and the minimum meal frequency
  9. gChildren 6–23 months of age who receive an iron-rich food or iron-fortified food that is specially designed for infants and young children, or that is fortified in the home the previous day