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Table 1 Child and maternal characteristics, Malawi 2015–2016

From: Maternal determinants of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding and their association with child undernutrition in Malawi (2015–2016)

VariablesPercentage (%)a
Child characteristics
Nutritional status
 Stunted (n = 2222)30.8
 Wasted (n = 2221)3.7
 Underweight (n = 2224)9.9
Anemic (n = 1670)80.0
 Severe (Hb < 7.0 g/dL)3.7
 Moderate (Hb 7.0–9.9 g/dL)49.5
 Mild (Hb 10.0–11.0 g/dL)26.8
Morbidity (n = 2281)
 Diarrhea31.1
 Fever34.5
 Cough27.3
Maternal characteristics
Maternal education (n = 2281)
 No education11.2
 Some primary65.9
 Secondary or higher22.9
Maternal literacy (n = 2281)
 Cannot read30.8
 Able to read parts of sentence9.8
 Able to read whole sentence59.4
Maternal occupation (n = 2281)
 Not working outside the home36.9
 Working outside the home63.1
Marital status (n = 2281)
 Unmarried21.3
 Married78.7
Ethnicity (n = 2222)
 Chewa34.6
 Tumbuka8.4
 Lomwe18.0
 Yao15.8
 Ngoni11.7
 Other11.5
Religion (n = 2279)
 Christian83.8
 Muslim15.6
 Other0.6
Exposure to media (n = 2222)
 Television 
 Not at all82.9
 Rarely (Less than once a week)9.2
 At least once a week7.9
Maternal characteristics (continued) (n = 2281)
Radio
 Not at all53.2
 Rarely (Less than once a week)19.3
 At least once a week27.5
Newspaper
 Not at all83.9
 Rarely (Less than once a week)10.4
 At least once a week5.7
Wealth index
 Poorest25.0
 Poorer22.7
 Middle19.9
 Richer15.8
 Richest16.6
Area of residence
 Urban14.8
 Rural85.2
Region of residence
 Northern11.2
 Central42.0
 Southern46.8
  1. aWeighted frequencies