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Table 1 Characteristics of students who were and were not victims of cyberbullying

From: Cybervictimization among secondary students: social networking time, personality traits and parental education

 Total Sample
n (%) / Mean (SD)
n = 765
Victims
n (%) / Mean (SD)
n = 305
Non-Victims
n (%) / Mean (SD)
n = 460
p-value a)Effect Sizeb)
Age14.99 (0.66)14.95 (0.67)15.03 (0.65)0.110 
Sex   0.040−0.074
 Female432 (56.5%)186 (43.1%)246 (56.9%)  
 Male333 (43.5%)119 (35.7%)214 (64.3%)  
Mother’s education   0.096 
 Less than primary23 (4.4%)12 (5.9%)11 (3.4%)  
 Only Primary111 (21.1%)52 (25.5%)59 (18.4%)  
 Secondary225 (42.9%)79 (38.7%)146 (45.5%)  
 University166 (31.6%)61 (29.9%)105 (32.7%)  
Father’s education
 Less than primary26 (5.1%)11 (5.5%)15 (4.8%)0.717 
 Only Primary122 (23.8%)46 (23.0%)76 (24.4%)  
 Secondary261 (51.0%)107 (53.5%)154 (49.4%)  
 University103 (20.1%)36 (18.0%)67 (21.5%)  
Social network use and screen time
 Daily screen time, min338 (288)375 (306)316 (274)0.0080.203
 Daily screen minutes, z-score0 (1)0.12 (1.06)−0.076 (0.95)  
 Daily social networks, min/week338 (359)390 (371)308 (349)0.0020.228
 Daily social networks minutes, z-score0 (1)0.14 (1.035)−0.86 (0.97)  
Personality traits, z-score
 Openness0 (1)0.023 (1.024)−0.021 (0.990)0.561 
 Conscientiousness0 (1)−0.124 (1.019)0.080 (0.976)0.0070.314
 Extraversion0 (1)0.131 (1.041)−0.074 (0.955)0.006−0.207
 Agreeableness0 (1)0.019 (1.044)−0.007 (0.960)0.730 
 Emotional Instability0 (1)0.240 (1.045)−0.167 (0.928)< 0.001−0.417
  1. a) Student’s t-test or Chi-square test. b) Effect size were estimated as Cramer’s V for categorical variables or d-Cohen’s d for continuous variables