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Table 1 Facets of traditional and modern eating mentioned in previous research and in our group discussions as well as their assignment to the 12 subdimensions and 2 dimensions

From: Understanding traditional and modern eating: the TEP10 framework

Facets Source (Reference; D = Group discussion) T/Ma
Dimension What People Eat
 Subdimension Ingredients
  High consumption of energy-dense foods Dubé et al. (2014) [31]; Monteiro et al. (2013) [1]
D
M
  Consuming diet drinks or foods D M
  High consumption of refined foods Chopra et al. (2002) [10]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3] M
  High consumption of basic foods like wheat, corn, or rice D T
  High consumption of animal-source foods Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3] M
  High consumption of plant-based foods D T
  High consumption of grain Chopra et al. (2002) [10]; Drewnowski & Popkin (1997) [5] T
  High consumption of fruit Dubé et al. (2014) [31] T
  High consumption of vegetables Dubé et al. (2014) [31]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3] T
  High consumption of fiber Chopra et al. (2002) [10]; Dubé et al. (2014) [31]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6] T
  High consumption of sugar and caloric sweeteners Chopra et al. (2002) [10]; Drewnowski & Popkin (1997) [5]; Dubé et al. (2014) [31]; Monteiro et al. (2013) [1]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin (2009) [9]; Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3] M
  Consuming artificial sweeteners (e.g., in diet drinks, to sweeten coffee or tea) D M
  High consumption of oils and fats (especially trans fats and saturated fats) Chopra et al. (2002) [10]; Drewnowski & Popkin (1997) [5]; Dubé et al. (2014) [31]; Monteiro et al. (2013) [1]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin (2009) [9];
Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]
D
M
  High consumption of salt Monteiro et al. (2013) [1]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3] M
 Subdimension Processing
  High consumption of industrially unprocessed foods Monteiro et al. (2011) [40]; Popkin (2009) [9] T
  High consumption of fresh foods D T
  High consumption of industrially ultra-processed foods Monteiro et al. (2013) [1]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin (2009) [9]
D
M
  Eating foods that are industrially mass-produced Trichopoulou et al. (2007) [29] M
  High consumption of convenience products Jabs & Devine (2006) [41] M
  Consumption of ultra-processed microwavable or frozen meals that were industrially produced D M
  Consumption of fast foods Jabs & Devine (2006) [41] M
  Consumption of soft drinks Dubé et al. (2014) [31] M
  Eating foods with organic label D M
 Subdimension Preparation
  High consumption of foods that require a long preparation/cooking time D T
  Knowing how to cook D T
  High consumption of foods that was cooked by a woman D T
  High consumption of foods that has been prepared at home Jabs & Devine (2006) [41]
D
T
  Eating home-canned foods D T
  Eating foods that have been prepared in grandmother’s way Vanhonacker et al. (2010) [42] T
  Flavoring most of the foods in a way that is typical for your country/region D T
  Consumption of foods that are seasoned at the table (e.g., with salt, pepper) D T
  High consumption of foods that were prepared using time-saving preparation equipment such as microwave ovens, rice cookers, and bread machines Jabs & Devine (2006) [41] M
  Availability of a lot of different ways to cook/heat up foods D M
  High consumption of fried foods Popkin (2009) [9] M
  High consumption of grilled foods Popkin (2009) [9] M
  High consumption of ready-prepared foods Jabs & Devine (2006) [41] M
  Eating take-away or delivered meals Popkin (2009) [9]
D
M
 Subdimension Temporal Origin
  High consumption of foods that have been eaten since the second World War Trichopoulou et al. (2007) [29] T
  High consumption of foods that were known already by grandparents D T
  High consumption of typical dishes D T
  High consumption of foods from other countries’ cuisines D M
  Eating pizza Pingali (2006) [43]
D
M
  High consumption of foods that are recently produced D M
  Consuming genetically modified foods Lusk et al. (2005) [44] M
 Subdimension Spatial Origin
  High consumption of local food products Trichopoulou et al. (2007) [29]
D
T
  High consumption of seasonal foods D T
  Consumption of global food products from mass production Trichopoulou et al. (2007) [29]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3] M
  Food available everywhere D M
  Buying most foods at markets or small family stores D T
  High consumption of cheap food products from supermarkets; especially cheap meat products D M
  All foodstuffs are purchased (as opposed to grown or raised by oneself) D M
  Eating foods from vending machines D M
 Subdimension Variety
  Eating a diverse and varied diet Drewnowski & Popkin (1997) [5] M
  Large number of food choices D M
  Eating a large variety of different flavors D M
  Eating a large variety of different types of fruits and vegetables D M
  Eating a large variety within one type of fruit or vegetable D T
Dimension How People Eat
 Subdimension Temporal Aspects
  Taking time for eating D T
  Eating an entire meal within 10 min or less D M
  Regular/fixed mealtimes Fjellström (2004) [45] T
  Eating at the same time in a family D T
  Eating at traditional mealtimes Mestdag (2005) [46]
D
T
  Consumption of main meals Fjellström (2004) [45]
D
T
  Snacking Mestdag (2005) [46]; Popkin (2009) [9]; Zizza et al. (2001) [47]
D
M
  Irregular/flexible mealtimes; skipping meals D M
  Consumption of traditional dishes at celebrations/special occasions (e.g., Sundays, festivals) D T
 Subdimension Spatial Aspects
  Eating at home Jabs & Devine (2006) [41]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]
D
T
  Eating out of home Popkin (2009) [9] M
  Eating in restaurants Jabs & Devine (2006) [41]; Story et al. (2008) [4] M
  Eating in buffet restaurants D M
  Eating on the run Jabs & Devine (2006) [41]; Mestdag (2005) [46] M
  High consumption of foods to go D M
  Eating while working D M
 Subdimension Social Aspects
  Eating together/ in company D T
  Eating with family Jabs & Devine (2006) [41]; Mestdag (2005) [46]
D
T
  Eating with colleagues D M
  Eating alone Fischler (2011) [48]; Kwon et al. (2018) [49] M
  Highly constraining, homogeneous collective rules Fischler (1990) [50] T
  Eating is guided by social norms (Heteronomy) Fischler (1990) [50] T
  Eating the same foods as the others when eating at home D T
  Individualistic D M
  Men get preferential treatment over women at mealtimes D T
  Eating while being served foods by others D T
  Larger family events center on meals D T
  Having conversations while eating D T
 Subdimension Meals
  Lunch or dinner as main meal of the day D T
  Meals end with a sweet dessert D T
  Foods that are eaten for breakfast differ largely from foods that are eaten for other meals D M
  Drinking soft drinks during the main meal (e.g., cola) D M
  Consumption of larger portion sizes Benson (2009) [51] M
 Subdimension Appreciation
  Appreciation of foods D T
  More food waste D M
  Dissociation: not knowing where foods come from, and what is in them D M
  Table manners D T
  Eating in a way that shows respect for others at the table D T
  Doing something else while eating Jabs & Devine (2006) [41] M
  Using plastic utensils (e.g., plastic forks) D M
 Subdimension Concerns
  Major concern: availability and quantity of food Fischler (1990) [50] T
  Concern about whether foods are spoiled D T
  Major concern: quality of food Fischler (1990) [50] M
  Intuitive eating D T
  Analytical eating D M
  Interest in nutrition and consumer education D M
  Interest in food & health labels D M
  Trouble deciding what to eat Fischler (1990) [50] M
  Concerns about eating too much D M
  1. Note. a T refers to when a facet was mentioned as part of traditional eating by the respective reference(s) or in the group discussions; M refers to when a facet was mentioned as part of modern eating respectively