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Table 1 Facets of traditional and modern eating mentioned in previous research and in our group discussions as well as their assignment to the 12 subdimensions and 2 dimensions

From: Understanding traditional and modern eating: the TEP10 framework

FacetsSource (Reference; D = Group discussion)T/Ma
Dimension What People Eat
 Subdimension Ingredients
  High consumption of energy-dense foodsDubé et al. (2014) [31]; Monteiro et al. (2013) [1]
D
M
  Consuming diet drinks or foodsDM
  High consumption of refined foodsChopra et al. (2002) [10]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]M
  High consumption of basic foods like wheat, corn, or riceDT
  High consumption of animal-source foodsPopkin (2003) [8]; Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]M
  High consumption of plant-based foodsDT
  High consumption of grainChopra et al. (2002) [10]; Drewnowski & Popkin (1997) [5]T
  High consumption of fruitDubé et al. (2014) [31]T
  High consumption of vegetablesDubé et al. (2014) [31]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]T
  High consumption of fiberChopra et al. (2002) [10]; Dubé et al. (2014) [31]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]T
  High consumption of sugar and caloric sweetenersChopra et al. (2002) [10]; Drewnowski & Popkin (1997) [5]; Dubé et al. (2014) [31]; Monteiro et al. (2013) [1]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin (2009) [9]; Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]M
  Consuming artificial sweeteners (e.g., in diet drinks, to sweeten coffee or tea)DM
  High consumption of oils and fats (especially trans fats and saturated fats)Chopra et al. (2002) [10]; Drewnowski & Popkin (1997) [5]; Dubé et al. (2014) [31]; Monteiro et al. (2013) [1]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin (2009) [9];
Popkin & Gordon-Larsen (2004) [6]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]
D
M
  High consumption of saltMonteiro et al. (2013) [1]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]M
 Subdimension Processing
  High consumption of industrially unprocessed foodsMonteiro et al. (2011) [40]; Popkin (2009) [9]T
  High consumption of fresh foodsDT
  High consumption of industrially ultra-processed foodsMonteiro et al. (2013) [1]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin (2009) [9]
D
M
  Eating foods that are industrially mass-producedTrichopoulou et al. (2007) [29]M
  High consumption of convenience productsJabs & Devine (2006) [41]M
  Consumption of ultra-processed microwavable or frozen meals that were industrially producedDM
  Consumption of fast foodsJabs & Devine (2006) [41]M
  Consumption of soft drinksDubé et al. (2014) [31]M
  Eating foods with organic labelDM
 Subdimension Preparation
  High consumption of foods that require a long preparation/cooking timeDT
  Knowing how to cookDT
  High consumption of foods that was cooked by a womanDT
  High consumption of foods that has been prepared at homeJabs & Devine (2006) [41]
D
T
  Eating home-canned foodsDT
  Eating foods that have been prepared in grandmother’s wayVanhonacker et al. (2010) [42]T
  Flavoring most of the foods in a way that is typical for your country/regionDT
  Consumption of foods that are seasoned at the table (e.g., with salt, pepper)DT
  High consumption of foods that were prepared using time-saving preparation equipment such as microwave ovens, rice cookers, and bread machinesJabs & Devine (2006) [41]M
  Availability of a lot of different ways to cook/heat up foodsDM
  High consumption of fried foodsPopkin (2009) [9]M
  High consumption of grilled foodsPopkin (2009) [9]M
  High consumption of ready-prepared foodsJabs & Devine (2006) [41]M
  Eating take-away or delivered mealsPopkin (2009) [9]
D
M
 Subdimension Temporal Origin
  High consumption of foods that have been eaten since the second World WarTrichopoulou et al. (2007) [29]T
  High consumption of foods that were known already by grandparentsDT
  High consumption of typical dishesDT
  High consumption of foods from other countries’ cuisinesDM
  Eating pizzaPingali (2006) [43]
D
M
  High consumption of foods that are recently producedDM
  Consuming genetically modified foodsLusk et al. (2005) [44]M
 Subdimension Spatial Origin
  High consumption of local food productsTrichopoulou et al. (2007) [29]
D
T
  High consumption of seasonal foodsDT
  Consumption of global food products from mass productionTrichopoulou et al. (2007) [29]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]M
  Food available everywhereDM
  Buying most foods at markets or small family storesDT
  High consumption of cheap food products from supermarkets; especially cheap meat productsDM
  All foodstuffs are purchased (as opposed to grown or raised by oneself)DM
  Eating foods from vending machinesDM
 Subdimension Variety
  Eating a diverse and varied dietDrewnowski & Popkin (1997) [5]M
  Large number of food choicesDM
  Eating a large variety of different flavorsDM
  Eating a large variety of different types of fruits and vegetablesDM
  Eating a large variety within one type of fruit or vegetableDT
Dimension How People Eat
 Subdimension Temporal Aspects
  Taking time for eatingDT
  Eating an entire meal within 10 min or lessDM
  Regular/fixed mealtimesFjellström (2004) [45]T
  Eating at the same time in a familyDT
  Eating at traditional mealtimesMestdag (2005) [46]
D
T
  Consumption of main mealsFjellström (2004) [45]
D
T
  SnackingMestdag (2005) [46]; Popkin (2009) [9]; Zizza et al. (2001) [47]
D
M
  Irregular/flexible mealtimes; skipping mealsDM
  Consumption of traditional dishes at celebrations/special occasions (e.g., Sundays, festivals)DT
 Subdimension Spatial Aspects
  Eating at homeJabs & Devine (2006) [41]; Popkin (2003) [8]; Popkin et al. (2012) [3]
D
T
  Eating out of homePopkin (2009) [9]M
  Eating in restaurantsJabs & Devine (2006) [41]; Story et al. (2008) [4]M
  Eating in buffet restaurantsDM
  Eating on the runJabs & Devine (2006) [41]; Mestdag (2005) [46]M
  High consumption of foods to goDM
  Eating while workingDM
 Subdimension Social Aspects
  Eating together/ in companyDT
  Eating with familyJabs & Devine (2006) [41]; Mestdag (2005) [46]
D
T
  Eating with colleaguesDM
  Eating aloneFischler (2011) [48]; Kwon et al. (2018) [49]M
  Highly constraining, homogeneous collective rulesFischler (1990) [50]T
  Eating is guided by social norms (Heteronomy)Fischler (1990) [50]T
  Eating the same foods as the others when eating at homeDT
  IndividualisticDM
  Men get preferential treatment over women at mealtimesDT
  Eating while being served foods by othersDT
  Larger family events center on mealsDT
  Having conversations while eatingDT
 Subdimension Meals
  Lunch or dinner as main meal of the dayDT
  Meals end with a sweet dessertDT
  Foods that are eaten for breakfast differ largely from foods that are eaten for other mealsDM
  Drinking soft drinks during the main meal (e.g., cola)DM
  Consumption of larger portion sizesBenson (2009) [51]M
 Subdimension Appreciation
  Appreciation of foodsDT
  More food wasteDM
  Dissociation: not knowing where foods come from, and what is in themDM
  Table mannersDT
  Eating in a way that shows respect for others at the tableDT
  Doing something else while eatingJabs & Devine (2006) [41]M
  Using plastic utensils (e.g., plastic forks)DM
 Subdimension Concerns
  Major concern: availability and quantity of foodFischler (1990) [50]T
  Concern about whether foods are spoiledDT
  Major concern: quality of foodFischler (1990) [50]M
  Intuitive eatingDT
  Analytical eatingDM
  Interest in nutrition and consumer educationDM
  Interest in food & health labelsDM
  Trouble deciding what to eatFischler (1990) [50]M
  Concerns about eating too muchDM
  1. Note. a T refers to when a facet was mentioned as part of traditional eating by the respective reference(s) or in the group discussions; M refers to when a facet was mentioned as part of modern eating respectively