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Table 3 Factors that explain socioeconomic inequalities in ANC service utilisation, Nigeria, 2013

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in maternal health service utilisation: a case of antenatal care in Nigeria using a decomposition approach

 Concentration indexElasticityContribution
No ANC visitANC4+ANC use intensityNo ANC visitANC4+ANC visit intensity
Age0.012*** (0.001)−0.069* (0.038)0.111*** (0.028)0.105*** (0.030)−0.001* (0.000)0.001*** (0.000)0.001*** (0.000)
Primary education0.073*** (0.007)−0.067*** (0.006)0.032*** (0.005)0.026*** (0.004)−0.005*** (0.001)0.002*** (0.000)0.002*** (0.000)
Secondary education0.464*** (0.008)−0.105*** (0.009)0.065*** (0.007)0.067*** (0.008)−0.049*** (0.004)0.030*** (0.003)0.031*** (0.004)
Higher education0.189*** (0.006)−0.025*** (0.003)0.017*** (0.002)0.021*** (0.003)−0.005*** (0.001)0.003*** (0.000)0.004*** (0.001)
Married/cohabiting−0.010*** (0.003)− 0.030 (0.051)− 0.001 (0.038)0.054 (0.051)< 0.001 (0.001)< 0.001 (0.000)− 0.001 (0.001)
Distance big problem−0.366*** (0.008)0.082*** (0.008)−0.062*** (0.005)− 0.059*** (0.005)− 0.030*** (0.003)0.023*** (0.002)0.022*** (0.002)
Poorer−0.272*** (0.007)−0.082*** (0.007)0.038*** (0.004)0.027*** (0.003)0.022*** (0.002)−0.010*** (0.001)−0.007*** (0.001)
Middle0.088*** (0.006)−0.118*** (0.007)0.067*** (0.005)0.050*** (0.004)−0.010*** (0.001)0.006*** (0.001)0.004*** (0.000)
Richer0.337*** (0.007)−0.131*** (0.008)0.081*** (0.005)0.080*** (0.005)−0.044*** (0.003)0.027*** (0.002)0.027*** (0.002)
Richest0.570*** (0.009)−0.117*** (0.008)0.086*** (0.006)0.111*** (0.007)−0.067*** (0.005)0.049*** (0.004)0.063*** (0.004)
Employed0.165*** (0.009)−0.074*** (0.014)0.042*** (0.010)0.056*** (0.010)−0.012*** (0.003)0.007*** (0.002)0.009*** (0.002)
Urban0.689*** (0.007)−0.070*** (0.008)0.026*** (0.007)−0.004 (0.008)−0.048*** (0.006)0.018*** (0.005)−0.003 (0.006)
Household head0.064*** (0.005)−0.002 (0.002)0.003** (0.002)0.012*** (0.003)<−0.001 (0.000)< 0.001** (0.000)0.001*** (0.000)
Permission big problem−0.147*** (0.006)0.043*** (0.004)−0.020*** (0.003)−0.011*** (0.002)− 0.006*** (0.001)0.003*** (0.000)0.002*** (0.000)
Catholic0.077*** (0.006)0.012*** (0.003)−0.006*** (0.002)−0.022*** (0.003)0.001*** (0.000)<−0.001*** (0.000)− 0.002*** (0.000)
Non-Catholic0.395*** (0.008)0.028*** (0.006)−0.001 (0.005)0.012 (0.008)0.011*** (0.002)<−0.001 (0.002)0.005 (0.003)
Traditional/other−0.011*** (0.002)0.004*** (0.001)−0.002*** (0.001)−0.001 (0.001)<− 0.001*** (0.000)< 0.001** (0.000)< 0.001 (0.000)
Health worker attitude−0.116*** (0.007)− 0.010** (0.005)0.007** (0.003)− 0.009*** (0.003)0.001** (0.001)− 0.001** (0.000)0.001*** (0.000)
Spouse: primary−0.002 (0.007)−0.076*** (0.007)0.044*** (0.004)0.021*** (0.004)< 0.001 (0.001)<−0.001 (0.000)<−0.001 (0.000)
Spouse: secondary0.391*** (0.008)−0.111*** (0.010)0.075*** (0.007)0.054*** (0.007)−0.043*** (0.004)0.029*** (0.003)0.021*** (0.003)
Spouse: higher0.286*** (0.007)−0.060*** (0.005)0.041*** (0.004)0.027*** (0.004)−0.017*** (0.002)0.012*** (0.001)0.008*** (0.001)
Spouse: employed−0.010*** (0.002)−0.137 (0.090)− 0.037 (0.071)−0.139 (0.107)0.001 (0.001)< 0.001 (0.001)0.001 (0.001)
Ethnicity fixed effect0.463*** (0.008)−0.046*** (0.005)0.072*** (0.004)0.207*** (0.007)−0.021*** (0.002)0.033*** (0.002)0.096*** (0.004)
Geopolitical zone fixed effect0.412*** (0.009)−0.182*** (0.016)0.097*** (0.011)0.151*** (0.009)−0.075*** (0.007)0.040*** (0.005)0.062*** (0.004)
Residual    −0.176*** (0.012)0.309*** (0.007)0.010* (0.006)
Total    −0.573*** (0.016)0.582*** (0.024)0.357*** (0.012)
  1. Notes: Estimation sample was 18,559; estimates are weighted by the women’s sampling weight; standard errors in parenthesis; bootstrapped standard errors with 1000 replications for elasticity and contributions;
  2. *, **, and *** indicate statistical significance at the 10, 5, and 1%, respectively