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Table 1 Description of variables and descriptive statistics

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in maternal health service utilisation: a case of antenatal care in Nigeria using a decomposition approach

VariableVariable descriptionMean/ Proportion
Antenatal visits during pregnancy
 No ANC visit= 1 if the woman did not visit any antenatal clinic; 0 otherwise35.4%
 1–3 ANC visits= 1 if the woman made either one or two or three ANC visits; 0 otherwise12.4%
 ANC4+= 1 if the woman made at least four ANC visits; 0 otherwise52.2%
 ANC visit intensityNumber of ANC visits5.1
 Distance to a clinic is a big problem= 1 if the woman feels that the distance to the nearest clinic is a big problem; 0 if she feels it is not a big problem31.9%
Woman’s highest educational attainment
 No education= 1 if the woman did not attend school; 0 otherwise49.4%
 Some primary education= 1 if the woman has some primary education; 0 otherwise19.1%
 Some secondary education= 1 if the woman has some secondary education; 0 otherwise25.4%
 Higher education= 1 if the woman has some higher education; 0 otherwise6.1%
 Woman’s ageWoman’s age in years29.6
 Married/cohabiting= 1 if the woman is married/living with a partner; 0 otherwise97.0%
 Household head= 1 if the woman is a household head; 0 otherwise6.5%
 Woman is employed= 1 if the woman is working; 0 otherwise69.2%
 Urban residence= 1 if the woman lives in an urban area; 0 if she lives in a rural area35.0%
 Problem obtaining permission to seek medical help=1 if obtaining permission for the woman to seek own health care is a big problem; 0 if it is not a big problem12.6%
 Attitude of health workers= 1 if health worker attitude is a big problem; 0 otherwise16.9%
Household wealth categories
 1. poorest= 1 if the woman belongs to the poorest quintile; 0 otherwise23.7%
 2. poorer= 1 if the woman belongs to the poorer quintile; 0 otherwise22.8%
 3. middle= 1 if the woman belongs to the middle quintile; 0 otherwise18.8%
 4. richer= 1 if the woman belongs to the richer quintile; 0 otherwise17.5%
 5. richest= 1 if the woman belongs to the richest quintile; 0 otherwise17.2%
Religion
 Islam= 1 if the woman is a Muslim; 0 otherwise62.9%
 Catholic= 1 if the woman is a Catholic; 0 otherwise8.4%
 Other Christian= 1 if the woman is a non-Catholic Christian; 0 otherwise27.7%
 Traditional/Other= 1 if the woman practices traditional/other religion; 0 otherwise1.1%
 Ethnicity= 1 if the woman is Igbo/Yoruba; 0 otherwise22.6%
Geopolitical zone
 North-Central= 1 if the woman comes from the North-Central; 0 otherwise14.2%
 North-East= 1 if the woman comes from the North-East; 0 otherwise17.1%
 North-West= 1 if the woman comes from the North-West; 0 otherwise37.6%
 South-East= 1 if the woman comes from the South-East; 0 otherwise8.0%
 South-South= 1 if the woman comes from the South-South; 0 otherwise8.5%
 South-West= 1 if the woman comes from the South-West; 0 otherwise14.6%
 Spouse employment= 1 if the spouse is working; 0 otherwise99.2%
Spouse’s highest educational attainment
 No education= 1 if the spouse has no education; 0 otherwise39.9%
 Primary education= 1 if the spouse has primary education; 0 otherwise18.4%
 Secondary education= 1 if the spouse has secondary education; 0 otherwise29.1%
 Higher education= 1 if the spouse has some higher education; 0 otherwise12.6%
Sample size 18,559
  1. Note: Estimates are weighted by the women’s sampling weight