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Table 4 Toilet usability and quality at baseline and endline among intervention and control schools

From: The impact of an operation and management intervention on toilet usability in schools in the Philippines: a cluster randomised controlled trial

 nBaselinenEndlineDifferenceDiD Risk Ratio
(95% CI)
p-value
Accessible
 Control13184%13283%-1%0.92p = 0.737
 Intervention12485%12477%-8%(0.63 – 1.16) 
 ICC 0.211     
Functionala
 Control11095%10988%-7%0.94p = 0.271
 Intervention10590%9589%-1%(0.85 – 1.05) 
 ICC 0.349     
Privateb
 Control10454%9554%0%0.80p = 0.280
 Intervention9654%8544%-5%(0.50 – 1.22) 
 ICC 0.211     
High qualityb
 Control10469%9664%-5%1.07p = 0.660
 Intervention9568%8573%5%(0.70 – 1.45) 
 0.329     
Usablec
 Control13130%13224%-6%0.86p = 0.637
 Intervention12429%12425%-4%(0.50 – 1.63) 
 ICC 0.149     
  1. aFunctional was only assessed among toilets that were accessible
  2. bPrivacy and quality only assessed among toilets that were both accessible and functional
  3. cUsable defined as toilets that were accessible, functional, private and of high quality