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Table 2 Quality Appraisal of the Included Studies

From: The effectiveness, suitability, and sustainability of non-pharmacological methods of managing pain in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

ReferenceDescribed as randomizedAppropriate randomizationDescribed as double blindedAppropriate double blinding methodDescribed withdrawals and dropoutsTotal (5 points)
 Li et al., 2018 [35]5
 Itoh et al., 2006 [36]5
 White et al., 2012 [37]NA3
Guided imagery
 Baird, Murawski, & Wu, 2010 [38]NA2
Periosteal stimulation (PST)
 Weiner et al., 2007 [39]NA2
 Weiner et al., 2008 [44]NA3
 von Trott et al., 2009 [40]NA2
 Yang et al., 2005 [41]NA 
Tai chi
 Brismee et al., 2007 [42]NA3
 Fransen et al., 2007 [43]NA3