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Table 1 Aims and Study Designs of the Included Articles

From: The effectiveness, suitability, and sustainability of non-pharmacological methods of managing pain in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

Reference Country Aims Duration and intervention Follow-up assessment
 Li et al., 2018 [35] United States To investigate the efficacy of a self-administered acupressure treatment on older adults with knee osteoarthritis 8 weeks
3 visits to the centre in 8 weeks
- Acupressure was taught to the participants and applied once daily for 5 days in the study period
Weekly phone calls
 Itoh et al., 2006 [36] Japan To examine the effectiveness of real acupuncture to trigger points as a treatment for chronic low back pain 12 weeks
2 interventions in 3 weekly sessions, with a washout period of 3 weeks:
- Trigger point acupuncture
3 weeks
 White et al., 2012 [37] United Kingdom To examine if an enhanced nonspecific effect associated with needling is present, to determine the effects of the consultation process and the practitioner, to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture on severe osteoarthritis pain, and to improve interpretation of the quantitative study through a nested qualitative network 8 weeks
Intervention twice per week for 4 weeks, with 2 consultations and face-to-face open-ended narrative qualitative interviews as a follow-up assessment
4 to 8 weeks
Guided imagery
 Baird, Murawski, & Wu, 2010 [38] USA To investigate the efficacy of guided imagery with relaxation (GIR) on symptom relief and medication use in osteoarthritis patients compared with a sham intervention of planned relaxation 16 weeks
12-min audiotape-guided GIR twice a day
Periosteal stimulation (PST)
 Weiner et al., 2007 [39] USA To evaluate the efficacy of PST in pain reduction and improved function in older adults with knee osteoarthritis, including those with advanced disease 6 weeks
30-min session once per week for PST
12 weeks
 Weiner et al., 2008 [44] USA To evaluate the effect of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) with and without general conditioning and aerobic exercise (GCAE) on decreasing pain and enhancing function in older adults with chronic low back pain 6 weeks
Twice per week
2 groups:
24 weeks
 von Trott et al., 2009 [40] Germany To examine if qigong is more effective than no intervention (waiting list) and exercise therapy in older patients with chronic neck pain 12 weeks
24 sessions (45 min each), 2 sessions per week:
- Qigong
- Exercise therapy
24 weeks
 Yang et al., 2005 [41] Korea To evaluate the short-term and residual effects of Qi-therapy on chronic pain and mood in older adults 4 weeks
20 min per session, twice per week:
External Korean Qi-therapy
2 weeks
Tai chi
 Brismee et al., 2007 [42] USA To examine the effects of group and home video Tai Chi exercise intervention programmes
To evaluate the sustainability of the effects of Tai Chi on osteoarthritis after cessation of the exercise intervention
To incorporate measurements taken at intermediate time points to evaluate and compare them with the pre- and post-measurements in previous studies
To apply a standardized form of Tai Chi exercise that has been most widely used in published longitudinal Tai Chi studies for various health conditions
12 weeks
Tai Chi exercise programme (24-form simplified Yang-style Tai Chi), 6-week group Tai Chi, 3 40-min sessions per week, another 6-week home Tai Chi programme
6 weeks
 Fransen et al., 2007 [43] Australia To test whether hydrotherapy or Tai Chi classes are accepted by patients with chronic symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hips or knees as physical activity options that can provide measurable improvements in joint pain and physical function 12 weeks
1-h class twice a week:
- Hydrotherapy programme
- Tai Chi: modification of 24 forms from the Sun style of Tai Chi
24 weeks