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Table 4 Associations between Educational Aspirations and Change in Health from the 7th–9th Grade, with Health Factors in the 7th Grade Included in the Analysis to Account for Starting Levels and Potential Ceiling Effects (not Shown): Multilevel Multinomial Logistic Regression. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are Presented

From: Health and educational aspirations in adolescence: a longitudinal study in Finland

  Health factors (n = 5.600)1 +Sociodemographics (n = 5.525)1,2 +School performance (n = 5.522)1,2,3
Applied for academic track is the reference category Vocational track Both tracks Vocational track Both tracks Vocational track Both tracks
  OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI)
SDQ
 Improved 0.66 (0.45–0.95) 0.77 (0.54–1.10) 0.86 (0.57–1.27) 0.86 (0.60–1.25) 1.03 (0.63–1.67) 0.94 (0.62–1.42)
 Stable 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Worse 2.11 (1.75–2.54) 1.82 (1.52–2.19) 2.02 (1.66–2.27) 1.76 (1.46–2.12) 1.62 (1.27–2.07) 1.45 (1.18–1.78)
Daily health complaints
 Improved 1.04 (0.76–1.42) 1.04 (0.78–1.40) 1.04 (0.74–1.44) 1.00 (0.74–1.34) 1.12 (0.75–1.68) 1.10 (0.79–1.53)
 Stable 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Worse 1.11 (0.91–1.36) 1.12 (0.93–1.35) 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 1.10 (0.80–1.52) 1.10 (0.84–1.44) 1.16 (0.94–1.44)
Long-term illness
 Improved 1.09 (0.82–1.45) 1.01 (0.77–1.33) 1.08 (0.80–1.46) 0.98 (0.74–1.30) 0.91 (0.62–1.33) 0.87 (0.64–1.19)
 Stable 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Worse 0.98 (0.82–1.18) 0.78 (0.65–0.93) 0.98 (0.81–1.19) 0.77 (0.65–0.93) 0.98 (0.77–1.25) 0.77 (0.63–0.94)
Self-rated health
 Improved 0.90 (0.59–1.39) 1.04 (0.70–1.54) 0.82 (0.52–1.30) 1.03 (0.69–1.53) 0.79 (0.45–1.38) 0.97 (0.63–1.52)
 Stable 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Worse 1.48 (1.17–1.87) 1.21 (0.95–1.53) 1.38 (1.08–1.77) 1.14 (0.89–1.45) 1.57 (1.15–2.14) 1.19 (0.91–1.56)
 AIC / BIC 10.100.9 / 10.333.0    9708.4/ 9708.4   7753.4/ 7753.4
  1. Notes. Analyses were adjusted for 1gender, 2immigrant background, parental employment, and education, and family structure, and 3school performance. Statistically significant associations are marked bold. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire = SDQ. Akaike (AIC) and Bayesian (BIC) information criteria are shown