Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations of Educational Aspirations with Health, Sociodemographic Background, and Academic Achievement in the 9th Grade: Multilevel Multinomial Logistic Regression

From: Health and educational aspirations in adolescence: a longitudinal study in Finland

  Health factors (n = 5.600) +Sociodemographics (n = 5.525) +School performance (n = 5.522)
Applied for academic track is the reference category Vocational track Both tracks Vocational track Both tracks Vocational track Both tracks
  OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI)
SDQ
 Normal 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Slightly raised 1.94 (1.58–238) 1.76 (1.45–2.14) 1.86 (1.50–2.31) 1.69 (1.38–2.06) 1.56 (1.20–2.04) 1.44 (1.16–1.79)
 High difficulty score 3.08 (2.42–3.91) 2.41 (1.89–3.06) 2.49 (1.93–3.23 2.15 (1.68–2.75) 1.59 (1.16–2.19) 1.54 (1.17–2.02)
Daily health complaints
 No symptoms 1 1 1 1 1 1
 One symptom 1.08 (0.87–1.22) 1.07 (0.87–1.31) 1.04 (0.82–1.32) 1.08 (0.88–1.33) 1.12 (0.84–1.50) 1.13 (0.89–1.42)
 Two or more 1.45 (1.19–1.76) 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 1.07 (0.84–1.38) 1.22 (0.98–1.53) 1.03 (0.76–1.40) 1.19 (0.93–1.52)
Long-term illness
 No long-term illness 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Long-term illness 0.90 (0.73–1.12) 0.81 (0.66–0.99 0.90 (0.72–1.13) 0.83 (0.67–1.02) 0.99 (0.74–1.31) 0.89 (0.71–1.12)
Medicine prescribed 1.03 (0.86–1.23) 0.82 (0.69–0.98) 1.03 (0.85–1.24) 0.83 (0.69–0.98) 1.07 (0.85–1.36) 0.84 (0.69–1.02)
Self-rated health
 Good 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Average or poor 1.45 (1.19–1.76) 1.27 (1.04–1-54) 1.35 (1.10–1.67) 1.20 (0.98–1.46) 1.54 (1.18–2.00) 1.29 (1.03–1.61)
Gender
 Girl 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Boy 2.82 (2.42–3.30) 1.78 (1.54–2.05) 3.04 (2.58–3.59) 1.83 (1.58–2.12) 1.97 (1.60–2.42) 1.37 (1.17–1.61)
Immigrant background
 Native    1 1 1 1
 Immigrant    0.92 (0.65–1.30) 1.24 (0.94–1.65) 0.87 (0.57–1.32) 1.24 (0.90–1.70)
Parental employment
 Both parents working    1 1 1 1
 Other    1.30 (1.02–1.65) 1.07 (0.85–1.35) 1.32 (0.98–1.79) 1.07 (0.83–1.39)
Parental education
 High    1 1 1 1
 Low    5.11 (4.22–6.02) 2.03 (1.73–2.38) 3.21 (2.62–3.95) 1.47 (1.23–1.76)
Family structure
 Nuclear family    1 1 1 1
 Other    1.92 (1.63–2.26) 1.53 (1.31–1.78) 1.55 (1.27–1.91) 1.29 (1.09–1.53)
School performance
 High      0.05 (0.03–0.08) 0.19 (0.15–0.24)
 Medium      1 1
 Low      35.10 (27.02–45.60) 9.49 (7.37–12.23)
 AIC / BIC 10.109.6 / 10.235.6   9431.2 / 9609.9   7442.5 / 7647.6  
  1. Notes. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Statistically significant associations are marked bold. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire = SDQ. Akaike (AIC) and Bayesian (BIC) information criteria are shown