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Table 4 Association between outcome variables (traffic injuries, traffic deaths and case fatality rate) and all predictor variables by the SDM

From: Economic development and road traffic injuries and fatalities in Thailand: an application of spatial panel data analysis, 2012–2016

Outcome variables Predictor variables Adjusted IRR 95% CI P-value
Traffic injuries GDP per capita—log Baht 1.307 1.147–1.489 < 0.001
Region (reference = Bangkok and its vicinity)
 • Central 1.341 0.830–2.166 0.230
 • Northeastern 1.564 0.832–2.937 0.165
 • Northern 1.907 0.970–3.749 0.061
 • Southern 0.785 0.439–1.404 0.414
Gasoline—log litre per capita 1.045 0.960–1.139 0.308
Accommodation and restaurant businesses—% GDP 0.997 0.992–1.002 0.196
Manufacturing and industry businesses—% GDP 0.994 0.990–0.998 0.002
Traffic deaths GDP per capita—log Baht 1.238 1.044–1.469 0.014
Region (reference = Bangkok and its vicinity)
 • Central 2.164 1.557–3.008 < 0.001
 • Northeastern 1.887 1.246–2.857 0.003
 • Northern 2.198 1.499–3.225 < 0.001
 • Southern 1.667 0.573–4.847 0.348
Gasoline—log litre per capita 1.090 1.001–1.187 0.047
Accommodation and restaurant businesses—% GDP 0.996 0.988–1.004 0.345
Manufacturing and industry businesses—% GDP 0.999 0.994–1.004 0.678
Case fatality rate GDP per capita—log Baht 0.971 0.789–1.194 0.779
Region (reference = Bangkok and its vicinity)
 • Central 1.550 0.991–2.423 0.055
 • Northeastern 1.223 0.732–2.044 0.443
 • Northern 1.141 0.622–2.095 0.430
 • Southern 1.983 0.393–10.012 0.407
Gasoline—log litre per capita 1.000 0.876–1.142 0.999
Accommodation and restaurant businesses—% GDP 0.997 0.992–1.003 0.331
Manufacturing and industry businesses—% GDP 1.006 1.001–1.012 0.027
  1. The Global Moran’s I statistics between 2012 and 2016 equated 0.394 (p-value < 0.001), 0.383 (p-value < 0.001), 0.385 (p-value < 0.001), 0.336 (p-value < 0.001) and 0.303 (p-value < 0.001) in traffic injuries; equated 0.333 (p-value < 0.001), 0.286 (p-value < 0.001), 0.256 (p-value < 0.001), 0.259 (p-value < 0.001) and 0.289 (p-value < 0.001) in traffic deaths; and equated 0.300 (p-value < 0.001), 0.313 (p-value < 0.001), 0.222 (p-value = 0.001), 0.222 (p-value = 0.001), and 0.288 (p-value < 0.001) in case fatality rate; 95% CI 95% confidence interval, IRR Incidence rate ratio