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Table 3 Association between outcome variables (traffic injuries, traffic deaths and case fatality rate) and all predictor variables by the NB regression and the RE model

From: Economic development and road traffic injuries and fatalities in Thailand: an application of spatial panel data analysis, 2012–2016

Outcome variables Predictor variables Negative binomial regression
without random effects
Negative binomial regression
with random effects
Adjusted IRR 95% CI p-value Adjusted IRR 95% CI p-value
Traffic injuries GDP per capita—log Baht 1.033 0.848–1.259 0.749 1.541 1.341–1.771 < 0.001
Region (reference = Bangkok and its vicinity)
 • Central 1.223 0.784–1.909 0.374 2.840 2.005–4.025 < 0.001
 • Northeastern 0.942 0.564–1.573 0.819 2.890 1.940–4.305 < 0.001
 • Northern 1.551 0.949–2.533 0.080 4.377 2.992–6.404 < 0.001
 • Southern 1.106 0.675–1.814 0.688 2.951 1.990–4.376 < 0.001
Gasoline—log litre per capita 1.097 0.926–1.300 0.283 1.075 0.983–1.175 0.112
Accommodation and restaurant businesses—% GDP 1.017 1.004–1.026 0.008 1.003 0.996–1.010 0.400
Manufacturing and industry businesses—% GDP 0.997 0.991–1.002 0.258 0.989 0.985–0.993 < 0.001
Traffic deaths GDP per capita—log Baht 1.087 0.879–1.345 0.440 1.193 1.054–1.351 0.005
Region (reference = Bangkok and its vicinity)
 • Central 3.074 2.321–4.071 < 0.001 3.268 2.558–4.175 < 0.001
 • Northeastern 2.726 2.073–3.586 < 0.001 2.803 2.120–3.705 < 0.001
 • Northern 2.994 2.269–3.949 < 0.001 3.138 2.398–4.106 < 0.001
 • Southern 2.527 1.812–3.523 < 0.001 2.629 2.008–3.441 < 0.001
Gasoline—log litre per capita 1.236 1.097–1.393 0.001 1.048 0.960–1.143 0.297
Accommodation and restaurant businesses—% GDP 0.997 0.987–1.007 0.577 0.991 0.983–0.999 0.036
Manufacturing and industry businesses—% GDP 0.998 0.991–1.005 0.599 0.999 0.995–1.003 0.534
Case fatality rate GDP per capita—log Baht 1.006 0.752–1.345 0.969 0.827 0.704–0.968 0.019
Region (reference = Bangkok and its vicinity)
 • Central 2.251 1.380–3.670 0.001 2.599 1.783–3.787 < 0.001
 • Northeastern 2.544 1.455–4.449 0.001 2.062 1.356–3.137 0.001
 • Northern 1.678 0.977–2.881 0.060 1.534 1.018–2.313 0.041
 • Southern 2.047 1.157–3.620 0.014 2.066 1.371–3.112 0.001
Gasoline—log litre per capita 1.160 0.914–1.471 0.221 0.852 0.762–0.953 0.005
Accommodation and restaurant businesses—% GDP 0.985 0.965–1.005 0.145 0.985 0.975–0.996 0.009
Manufacturing and industry businesses—% GDP 1.002 0.995–1.009 0.004 1.009 1.003–1.014 0.001
  1. 95% CI 95% confidence interval, IRR Incidence rate ratio