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Table 4 Associations between district-level social capital and cognitive impairment in women

From: Does community social capital buffer the relationship between educational disadvantage and cognitive impairment? A multilevel analysis in Japan

  Model 1 Model 2
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Individual level
 Older (every 10-year increase in age) 4.15 (2.64–6.52)*** 4.39 (2.72–7.09)*** 4.31 (2.79–6.66)*** 3.89 (2.48–6.10)*** 4.24 (2.62–6.87)*** 4.13 (2.60–6.55)***
 Unmarried 0.58 (0.26–1.33) 0.59 (0.26–1.35) 0.52 (0.22–1.21) 0.57 (0.25–1.29) 0.56 (0.24–1.27) 0.53 (0.23–1.23)
 Low education
   ≤ 9 years of schooling 2.19 (1.03–4.64)* 2.30 (1.12–4.73)* 2.38 (1.31–4.33)** 2.23 (0.98–5.10) 2.31 (1.13–4.73)* 2.68 (1.26–5.72)*
 Annual income (ref.: ≥ 5.0 million yen)
  2.0–4.9 million yen 1.62 (0.49–5.31) 1.69 (0.52–5.50) 1.51 (0.50–4.57) 1.93 (0.66–5.61) 2.05 (0.71–5.93) 1.59 (0.53–4.77)
   < 2.0 million yen 1.53 (0.56–4.20) 1.69 (0.63–4.56) 1.23 (0.45–3.35) 1.78 (0.69–4.64) 2.01 (0.79–5.09) 1.20 (0.44–3.26)
 Number of chronic diseases (ref.: none)
  1 0.47 (0.25–0.91)* 0.45 (0.23–0.87)* 0.47 (0.26–0.83)* 0.52 (0.26–1.05) 0.48 (0.25–0.94)* 0.50 (0.27–0.92)*
   ≥ 2 0.44 (0.14–1.41) 0.40 (0.12–1.34) 0.40 (0.12–1.32) 0.44 (0.13–1.89) 0.39 (0.11–1.31) 0.43 (0.12–1.48)
 Smaller number of friends with whom they could talk about private affairs 1.22 (0.90–1.65)    1.21 (0.89–1.64)   
 Smaller number of friends whom they could ask for help   1.10 (0.89–1.36)    1.08 (0.88–1.34)  
 Weaker neighborly ties    1.63 (1.26–2.12)***    1.64 (1.25–2.15)***
District level
 % of people aged ≥65 years in the district (every 10% increase) 0.82 (0.52–1.28) 0.89 (0.55–1.42) 0.91 (0.56–1.49) 0.79 (0.52–1.20) 0.86 (0.54–1.38) 0.90 (0.57–1.44)
 Population density in the district (every 1000 persons/km2 increase) 1.00 (0.89–1.21) 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 1.04 (0.95–1.15) 1.00 (0.91–1.11) 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 1.07 (0.97–1.17)
 Lower emotional support
  % of people who had no friends or one friend with whom they could talk about private affairs in the district (every 10% increase) 1.58 (1.00–2.49)*    1.70 (1.01–2.87)*   
 Lower instrumental support
  % of people who had no friends or one friend whom they could ask for help in the district (every 10% increase)   1.35 (0.69–2.66)    1.61 (0.78–3.30)  
 Weaker social network
  % of people who answered “I only greet my neighbors” or “I am not friendly with my neighbors at all” in the district (every 10% increase)    1.13 (0.70–1.82)    1.02 (0.67–1.55)
Cross-level interactions
 Low educational level × lower district-level emotional support     0.48 (0.12–1.89)   
 Low educational level × lower district-level instrumental support      0.21 (0.03–1.42)  
 Low educational level × weaker district-level social network       3.18 (1.02–10.30)*
  1. CI confidence interval. OR odds ratio
  2. *** p < 0.001. ** p < 0.01. * p < 0.05