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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Does community social capital buffer the relationship between educational disadvantage and cognitive impairment? A multilevel analysis in Japan

  Total
(n = 897)
Men
(n = 447)
Women
(n = 450)
Age (years) 74.4 ± 6.3 74.4 ± 6.2 74.5 ± 6.4
Unmarried 31.1 18.4 47.7
Years of education 12.5 ± 2.9 13.4 ± 3.1 11.6 ± 2.4
  ≤ 9 years 23.5 19.7 27.2
Annual income
  ≥ 5.0 million yen 12.0 15.1 8.9
 2.0–4.9 million yen 62.1 69.4 54.7
  < 2.0 million yen 25.8 15.5 36.5
Smoker 11.6 17.5 5.8
Number of chronic diseases
 None 41.7 38.1 45.3
 1 16.8 34.5 39.1
  ≥ 2 21.4 27.4 15.6
Number of friends with whom they could talk about private affairs (emotional support) 3.5 ± 1.4 3.6 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.3
 Five or more persons [= 1] 9.8 9.4 10.3
 Three to four persons [= 2] 16.7 14.9 18.5
 Two persons [= 3] 20.8 17.7 24.0
 One person [= 4] 20.3 18.3 22.1
 None [= 5] 32.4 39.7 25.1
Number of friends whom they could ask for help (instrumental support) 3.9 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 1.3 3.9 ± 1.2
 Five or more persons [= 1] 4.3 4.4 4.2
 Three to four persons [= 2] 12.2 13.2 11.2
 Two persons [= 3] 17.7 14.6 20.8
 One person [= 4] 17.7 13.9 21.5
 None [= 5] 48.1 53.9 42.3
Neighborly ties (social network) 2.3 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.8
 I often talk with neighbors about my problems [= 1] 16.7 8.0 25.3
 I only make small talk with my neighbors [= 2] 46.6 41.5 51.7
 I only greet my neighbors [= 3] 29.4 41.9 16.9
 I am not friendly with my neighbors at all [= 4] 7.4 8.7 6.1
Cognitive impairment (MMSE-J ≤ 23) 10.9 11.2 10.7
  1. Values represent % or means ± standard deviations
  2. MMSE-J Mini-Mental State Examination, Japanese version