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Table 6 Adjusted associations between environmental characteristics and activity participation in boys from MoBa

From: Neighborhood green spaces, facilities and population density as predictors of activity participation among 8-year-olds: a cross-sectional GIS study based on the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

  Adjusted OR (95% CI) in boys (n = 10,932)
≥ 5 h/week leisure-time PA (summer) ≥ 5 h/week leisure-time PA (winter) Organized activities ≥2 days/week Friends and peers ≥2 days/week
Step 1a Step 2b Step 1a Step 2b Step1a Step 2b Step 1a Step 2b
Total green space 800 m         
 ≤13% (ref.) NI NI 1 1 1 1 1 1
 13.1–29.9%    1.16 (1.04–1.29)* 1.16 (1.03–1.29)* 1.01 (0.90–1.14) 1.03 (0.91–1.16) 0.84 (0.73–0.98)* 0.82 (0.71–0.95)*
 30.0–49.9%    1.15 (1.04–1.28)** 1.15 (1.03–1.28)* 0.93 (0.83–1.04) 0.97 (0.86–1.10) 0.89 (0.77–1.03) 0.92 (0.79–1.07)
 ≥50.0%    1.26 (1.13–1.40)** 1.25 (1.11–1.40)** 0.87 (0.78–0.98)* 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.69 (0.59–0.79)** 0.80 (0.68–0.93)**
 P for trend    0.001 0.004 0.237 0.823 <0.001 0.002
Park within 800 m
 No (ref.) NI NI NI NI 1 1 NI NI
 Yes      1.09 (0.97–1.22) 0.99 (0.87–1.12)   
Park within 5000 m         
 No (ref.) NI NI NI NI 1 1 1 1
 Yes      1.18 (1.09–1.29)** 1.07 (0.97–1.19) 1.54 (1.37–1.71)** 1.20 (1.05–1.37)**
Facilities/amenities 800 m         
 0 (ref.) NI NI NI NI 1 1 1 1
 1      1.17 (1.05–1.31)** 1.11 (0.99–1.24) 1.31 (1.14–1.50)** 1.06 (0.92–1.22)
 2–3      1.19 (1.07–1.34)** 1.09 (0.97–1.24) 1.44 (1.25–1.66)** 1.14 (0.97–1.33)
 ≥4      1.11 (0.97–1.27) 0.99 (0.86–1.15) 1.21 (1.03–1.42)** 0.96 (0.80–1.15)
 P for trend      0.089 0.968 0.503 0.022
Facilities/amenities 5000 m         
 ≤5 (ref.) NI NI 1 NE 1 NE 1 NE
 6–14    0.99 (0.90–1.11)   1.10 (0.98–1.24)   1.44 (1.25–1.65)**  
 15–29    0.99 (0.88–1.10)   1.20 (1.06–1.35)**   1.82 (1.57–2.11)**  
 ≥30    0.93 (0.83–1.04)   1.30 (1.16–1.47)**   1.51 (1.31–1.74)**  
 P for trend    0.862   0.001   0.920  
Playgrounds/sports fields 800 m         
 ≤1 (ref.) 1 NE NI NE 1 NE 1 NE
 2–5 0.84 (0.73–0.96)*     1.24 (1.08–1.43)**   2.97 (2.52–3.52)**  
 6–10 0.92 (0.80–1.06)     1.23 (1.06–1.42)**   2.98 (2.51–3.54)**  
 ≥11 0.87 (0.77–0.98)*     1.42 (1.26–1.60)**   3.09 (2.70–3.52)**  
 P for trend <0.001     <0.001   <0.001  
Playgrounds/sports fields 5000 m         
 ≤35 (ref.) NI NI 1 NE 1 NE 1 NE
 36–119    1.00 (0.89–1.11)   0.96 (0.86–1.08)   1.65 (1.43–1.90)**  
 120–419    0.89 (0.79–0.99)*   1.16 (1.03–1.31)*   2.04 (1.77–2.37)**  
 ≥420    0.88 (0.78–0.98)*   1.30 (1.15–1.47)**   1.68 (1.45–1.94)**  
 P for trend    0.004   <0.001   <0.001  
School within 800 m
 No NI NI NI NI 1 1 1 1
 Yes      1.18 (1.07–1.29)** 1.09 (0.99–1.21) 1.18 (1.06–1.33)** 0.98 (0.86–1.11)
School within 5000 m         
 No NI NI NI NI 1 1 1 1
 Yes      1.24 (1.13–1.37)** 1.14 (1.02–1.28)* 1.50 (1.33–1.69)** 1.05 (0.92–1.21)
Population density 800 m
 ≤200 (ref.) NI 1   1 1
 201–799    0.98 (0.88–1.09)   1.11 (0.99–1.25)   2.26 (1.94–2.61)**  
 800–1649    0.94 (0.84–1.04)   1.27 (1.13–1.52)**   2.49 (2.15–2.88)**  
 ≥1650    0.91 (0.82–1.02)   1.30 (1.15–1.47)**   1.74 (1.52–2.01)**  
 P for trend    0.537   0.031   0.617  
  1. Note: OR, odds ratio; PA, physical activity; NI, not included due to non-significance in bivariate models; NE, not estimated due to multicollinearity. *p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01
  2. aAdjusted for participation in after-school care, mother’s age and level of education
  3. bAdditional adjustment for population density