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Table 4 Adjusted associations between environmental characteristics and activity participation in all children from MoBa

From: Neighborhood green spaces, facilities and population density as predictors of activity participation among 8-year-olds: a cross-sectional GIS study based on the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

  All children (n = 21,309) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
≥ 5 h/week leisure-time PA (summer) ≥ 5 h/week leisure-time PA (winter) Organized activities ≥2 days/week Friends and peers ≥2 days/week
Step 1a Step 2b Step 1a Step 2b Step 1a Step 2b Step 1a Step 2b
Total green space 800 m         
 ≤13% (ref.) NI NI 1 1 1 1 1 1
 13.1–29.9%    1.15 (1.06–1.24)** 1.14 (1.05–1.23)** 1.02 (0.93–1.11) 1.02 (0.94–1.12) 0.87 (0.75–0.96)** 0.85 (0.76–0.95)**
 30.0–49.9%    1.17 (1.08–1.26)** 1.15 (1.06–1.24)** 0.96 (0.88–1.04) 0.98 (0.90–1.07) 0.91 (0.82–1.02) 0.95 (0.85–1.07)
 ≥50.0%    1.27 (1.17–1.37)** 1.23 (1.13–1.33)** 0.89 (0.82–0.97)** 0.93 (0.85–1.02) 0.71 (0.64–0.79)** 0.83 (0.74–0.93)**
 P for trend    < 0.001 0.002 0.164 0.813 < 0.001 0.001
Park within 800 m
 No (ref.) 1 1 NI NI 1 1 NI NI
 Yes 1.02 (0.95–1.11) 1.12 (1.03–1.22)**    1.06 (0.97–1.15) 1.00 (0.91–1.09)   
Park within 5000 m         
 No (ref.) NI NI NI NI 1 1 1 1
 Yes      1.09 (1.02–1.16)** 1.01 (0.94–1.09) 1.53 (1.42–1.65)** 1.21 (1.10–1.34)**
Facilities/amenities 800 m         
 0 (ref.) NI NI NI NI 1 1 1 1
 1      1.17 (1.08–1.27)** 1.13 (1.04–1.22)** 1.33 (1.20–1.47)** 1.08 (0.97–1.20)
 2–3      1.13 (1.05–1.23)** 1.09 (0.99–1.19) 1.43 (1.29–1.58)** 1.12 (1.00–1.26)
 ≥4      1.13 (1.03–1.25)** 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 1.19 (1.06–1.34)** 0.94 (0.82–1.07)
 P for trend      0.009 0.205 0.214 0.005
Facilities/amenities 5000 m         
 ≤5 (ref.) NI NI NI NI 1 NE 1 NE
 6–14      0.99 (0.91–1.08)   1.41 (1.27–1.57)**  
 15–29      1.08 (0.99–1.18)   1.60 (1.43–1.78)**  
 ≥30      1.17 (1.07–1.27)**   1.49 (1.34–1.65)**  
 P for trend      0.003   0.500  
Playgrounds/sports fields 800 m
 ≤1 (ref.) 1 NE 1 NE 1 NE 1 NE
 2–5 0.84 (0.76–0.93)**   0.84 (0.76–0.93)**   1.15 (1.04–1.27)**   2.78 (2.46–3.14)**  
 6–10 0.90 (0.81–1.00)   0.89 (0.80–0.98)*   1.17 (1.05–1.30)**   2.91 (2.56–3.29)**  
 ≥11 0.80 (0.73–0.86)**   0.78 (0.72–0.85)**   1.29 (1.17–1.41)**   2.94 (2.67–3.24)**  
 P for trend < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001  
Playgrounds/sports fields 5000 m         
 ≤35 (ref.) NI NI NI NI 1 NE 1 NE
 36–119      0.93 (0.86–1.02)   1.76 (1.59–1.95)**  
 120–419      1.09 (0.99–1.19)   1.84 (1.66–2.04)**  
 ≥420      1.17 (1.07–1.28)**   1.76 (1.58–1.95)**  
 P for trend      < 0.001   < 0.001  
School within 800 m
 No 1 1 NI NI 1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.89 (0.83–0.95)** 0.94 (0.88–1.01)    1.12 (1.05–1.20)** 1.08 (1.01–1.16)* 1.19 (1.10–1.30)** 0.99 (0.91–1.09)
School within 5000 m         
 No NI NI NI NI 1 1 1 1
 Yes      1.17 (1.09–1.26)** 1.11 (1.03–1.21)* 1.63 (1.49–1.77)** 1.19 (1.08–1.32)**
Population density 800 m         
 ≤200 (ref.) NI NI NI NI 1 1
 201–799      1.05 (0.97–1.15)   2.28 (2.05–2.54)**  
 800–1649      1.20 (1.10–1.30)**   2.25 (2.03–2.50)**  
 ≥1650      1.17 (1.07–1.27)**   1.80 (1.62–1.99)**  
 P for trend      0.413   0.027  
  1. Note: OR, odds ratio; PA, physical activity; NI, not included due to non-significance in bivariate models; NE, not estimated due to multicollinearity. *p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01
  2. aAdjusted for sex, participation in after-school care, mother’s age and level of education
  3. bAdditional adjustment for population density