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Table 3 Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% CIs) for incident MetS according to quartiles of WHO healthy diet components among 424 children and adolescents

From: The association of dietary patterns and adherence to WHO healthy diet with metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: Tehran lipid and glucose study

  Dietary intakes
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P trend
Total fat (% of Energy) 24.7 29.8 34.3 39.7  
Model 1 1.00 0.60 (0.26–1.36) 0.54 (0.23–1.25) 0.48 (0.20–1.14) 0.86
Model 2 1.00 0.51 (0.21–1.24) 0.51 (0.20–1.28) 0.40 (0.15–1.05) 0.06
SFA (% of Energy) 7.61 10.0 11.8 14.7  
Model 1 1.00 0.30(0.12–0.75) 0.21(0.07–0.59) 0.70(0.34–1.47) 0.34
Model 2 1.00 0.26(0.09–0.37) 0.18(0.06–0.55) 0.57(0.25–1.32) 0.16
PUFAs (% of Energy) 4.27 5.70 7.10 8.85  
Model 1 1.00 0.86(0.40–1.83) 0.20(0.06–0.63) 0.60(0.26–1.36) 0.06
Model 2 1.00 0.66(0.28–1.55) 0.23(0.07–0.78) 0.52(0.21–1.29) 0.08
n-6 PUFAs (% of Energy) 3.64 4.90 6.20 7.90  
Model 1 1.00 0.86(0.40–1.83) 0.15(0.04–0.53) 0.66(0.30–1.44) 0.09
Model 2 1.00 0.68(0.29–1.58) 0.18(0.04–0.66) 0.55(0.22–1.33) 0.09
n-3 PUFAs (% of Energy) 0.30 0.42 0.54 0.70  
Model 1 1.00 1.53(0.67–3.48) 1.00(0.41–2.41) 0.80(0.31–2.02) 0.42
Model 2 1.00 1.38(0.56–3.42) 0.97(0.37–2.56) 0.74(0.27–2.02) 0.42
MUFA (% of Energy) 8.20 10.2 12.0 13.8  
Model 1 1.00 0.62(0.28–1.37) [0.39(0.16–0.96)] 0.45(0.19–1.06) 0.03
Model 2 1.00 0.40(0.16–0.98) 0.40(0.15–1.08) 0.42(0.17–1.05) 0.05
Trans fatty acid (% of Energy) 1.04 1.72 2.43 3.50  
Model 1 1.00 0.38(0.15–0.96) 0.75(0.34–1.65) 0.65(0.28–1.47) 0.57
Model 2 1.00 0.42(0.15–1.18) 0.75(0.30–1.85) 0.76(0.30–1.94) 0.89
Cholesterol (mg/day) 124 143 158 188  
Model 1 1.00 3.25(1.13–9.31) 2.88(0.99–8.41) 3.07(1.06–8.86) 0.10
Model 2 1.00 2.96(0.94–9.29) 2.42(0.76–7.72) 3.39(1.04–10.9) 0.08
Total carbohydrate (% of Energy) 49.0 55.4 59.2 64.7  
Model 1 1.00 0.55(0.20–1.46) 0.90(0.38–2.15) 1.49(0.67–3.30) 0.23
Model 2 1.00 0.63(0.22–1.83) 0.83(0.31–2.22) 1.66(0.69–4.01) 0.20
Free sugars (% of Energy) 3.00 5.14 7.22 10.9  
Model 1 1.00 0.49(0.20–1.22) 1.15(0.54–2.46) 0.42(0.16–1.09) 0.21
Model 2 1.00 0.39(0.13–1.11) 1.33(0.57–3.13) 0.39(0.14–1.08) 0.24
Protein (% of Energy) 10.7 12.2 13.5 15.4  
Model 1 1.00 1.00(0.38–2.62) 1.91(0.80–4.55) 1.50(0.61–3.69) 0.22
Model 2 1.00 0.94(0.33–2.67) 1.67(0.65–4.28) 1.45(0.55–3.81) 0.31
Salt (g/day) 4.91 7.70 11.83 20.1  
Model 1 1.00 0.74(0.3–1.78) 1.08(0.48–2.44) 0.74(0.31–1.78) 0.67
Model 2 1.00 0.71(0.27–1.89) 0.96(0.36–2.55) 1.21(0.43–3.38) 0.51
Fruits and Vegetables (g/day) 236 420 624 999  
Model 1 1.00 1.20(0.51–2.83) 1.00(0.41–2.41) 1.10(0.46–2.62) 0.94
Model 2 1.00 1.10(0.43–2.84) 1.22(0.46–3.27) 1.39(0.46–4.13) 0.53
Total dietary fiber (g/day) 6.94 9.04 10.9 14.4  
Model 1 1.00 1.86(0.74–4.65) 1.56(0.61–3.99) 1.71(0.67–4.32) 0.39
Model 2 1.00 1.52(0.57–4.01) 1.17(0.41–3.27) 1.70(0.63–4.58) 0.37
  1. SFA: Saturated fatty acid, PUFA: Poly unsaturated fatty acids
  2. Model 1: Crude
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for baseline age, sex, total energy intake, family history of diabetes, and BMI