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Table 1 Main model families and their characteristicsa

From: Alcohol consumption’s attributable disease burden and cost-effectiveness of targeted public health interventions: a systematic review of mathematical models

  State transition models (Markov) Life tables models Attributable fraction models
  Model specifications Sheffield DYNAMO-HIA Chronic disease model (CDM) Life tables models Comparative Risk Assessment WHO-Choice
  Design main characteristics Individual, no interactions, no history Aggregate, no interactions, no history Aggregate, no interactions, no history Aggregate, no interactions, no history Aggregate, no interactions, no history Hybrid Population state transition/CRA model, aggregate, no interactions, no history
  Time Frame Lifetime 10 years Lifetime Lifetime Lifetime Lifetime
  Main outcome Disease Burden, cost-effectiveness Mostly disease Burden Disease Burden, cost-effectiveness Mostly disease Burden Mostly disease Burden Disease Burden, cost-effectiveness
  Target interventions: tax / price (other than tax) / availability / advertising / short Screening (drinking and driving) Several interventions evaluated Alcohol price (tax) Screening and brief interventions, and alcohol tax Several interventions evaluated Several interventions evaluated, mostly tax Several interventions evaluated
  Key references [20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31] [32, 33] [34, 35] [36,37,38,39] [40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67] [68,69,70,71]
Objective Clarity about the questions that the model aims to answer Observed in all studies Observed in all studies Observed in all studies Observed in all studies Observed in all studies Observed in all studies
  Description of the model structure (including formula) Reported or referenced Reported or referenced Sometimes reported Sometimes reported Reported or referenced Sometimes reported
  Model Specification Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  Assumptions Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
Model family formulation and transparency Derivations from the model (mentions if a specific dataset was developed) Does not apply Reported in all studies Sometimes reported Frequently reported Does not apply Sometimes reported
  Variables used in the model (response predictors, potential confounders) Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Frequently reported Frequently reported Reported in all studies
  Method of parameter estimation and inference Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Frequently reported Frequently reported Frequently reported
  Construction model process (Selection of variables) Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Not available Not available Reported in all studies Not available
  Diagnosis and testing of model adequacy Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available
  Model Theoretical framework Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Frequently reported Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
Clear description of data Data Sources Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
  Data collection method Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Frequently reported Reported in all studies Frequently reported
  Process and size determination of the sample Does not apply Reported in all studies Sometimes reported Frequently reported Does not apply Does not apply
  Evaluation method (measurement data) Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
Model family findings: If information is available Needed indicators (BoD measure / prevalence / incidence) Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
  Standard errors and 95% confidence intervals Not reported Not reported Reported in all studies Frequently reported Frequently reported Reported in all studies
  Statistical adjustment model Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Sometimes reported Not reported
  Calibration with real data Does not apply Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
Validation If model validation was undertaken Frequently reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
Sensitivity analysis Sensitivity analysis was conducted Reported in all studies Not available Reported in all studies Frequently reported Frequently reported Reported in all studies
Missing data If there is some explanation Not available Not available Not available Not available Sometimes reported Not available
Dissemination and involvement of experts If the model is released before the end of the development or application of the model Reported in all studies Not available Not available Reported in all studies Frequently reported Reported in all studies
  If expert opinions were incorporated to develop the model Reported in all studies Not available Not available Not available Frequently reported Reported in all studies
Involvement of decision makers Involvement of decision makers in the development model Reported in all studies Not available Not available Not available Sometimes reported Reported in all studies
  If a policy is recommended based on the results derived from the model Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Frequently reported Frequently reported Reported in all studies
Discussion of limitations If possible methodological limitations of the model were discussed Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Frequently reported Reported in all studies
  If the model is available and accessible to the user Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Not available Not available Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
Reproducibility If data are available Frequently reported Reported in all studies Not available Not available Sometimes reported Reported in all studies
  If the codes are available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available Not available
  If there is availability of a user manual model Not available Reported in all studies Not available Not available Frequently reported Reported in all studies
  Area of application UK Europe National National Multiple areas National
  Country/ies Reported in all studies Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Switzerland and Britain. Holland Australia Reported in all studies Various
  Sex Reported in all studies (data by sex) Reported in all studies (data by sex) Reported in all studies (data by sex) Not specified Reported in all studies (data by sex) Reported in all studies (data by sex)
  Age subgroups Reported in all studies Over 16 years. Categories every 10 years. Reported in all studies population (no categories) Reported in all studies population (no categories) Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
  Considers episodic risk consumption? Yes No No No Yes No
  Consider the context of consumption (detrimental level)? Not reported No Not reported Not reported Frequently reported Reported in all studies
  Categories used commonly consumed gr / day Moderate (up to 21 units [10 ml of neat alcohol] per week for men and 14 units for women) /Hazardous (21–50 units men, and 14–35 women and Harmful (more than 50 units for men and more than 35 for women) Alcohol consumption is measured by five categories of daily intake of grams of pure alcohol: 0–< 0.25 g/d, 0.25–< 20 g/d, 20–< 40 g/d, 40–< 60 g/d, ≥60 g/d. for women: abstinence (no alcohol consumption), moderate (less than two standard drink units per day), excessive consumption (between two and four per day), and dangerous consumption (more than four per day), for men: abstinence (same), moderate consumption (fewer than four per day), excessive consumption (between four and six per day) and dangerous consumption (more than six per day) Results in decrease in net grams or drinks (standard units) per day Drinker I (females 0–19.99 g pure alcohol daily, males 0–39.99 g pure alcohol), Drinker II (females 20–39.99 g pure alcohol, males 40–59.99 g pure alcohol) and Drinker III (females ≥40 g pure alcohol, males ≥60 g pure alcohol). Heavy or Dangerous (>  20 g per day for women and > 40 g per day for men)
  Consumption categories denomination Moderate, hazardous and harmful Not reported Abstinence moderate, excessive and hazardous Low, Harmful, Hazardous (WHO classification) Drinkers I, II, III, (g/d). Sometimes differential category patterned Alcohol consumption or dangerous heavy
  Reference category to calculate risks Abstention Abstention Abstention Abstention Depends on the condition Depends on the condition
  Incorporate elasticity (price, consumer demand) Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Frequently reported Reported in all studies
  Mortality from causes related health Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
  How many diseases or ICD codes incorporates? (number) 47 9 Not available 13 Variable Variable
  Hospitalizations for related health conditions Reported in all studies Not reported Sometimes reported Reported in all studies Frequently reported Reported in all studies
  Includes damage to third parties (crime, AFS) Reported in all studies Not reported Not reported Reported in all studies Sometimes reported Not reported
  Incorporates indirect costs (labor productivity, absenteeism, unemployment) Reported in all studies Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
  Incorporates quality of life / disability (DALYs, QALYs) Reported in all studies Not available Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies Reported in all studies
  1. aSome models did not fall into these broad categories and their main features are described in the text