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Table 2 Average Snus Brand Ratings (Standard Deviations in Parenthesis) and Average Within-Participant Variability

From: Standardised snus packaging reduces brand differentiation: a web-based between-subject experiment

  General Appeal User-Brand Associations
Social Urban Sporty Elegant Unique Tough
Mean Ratings
 Branded 3.75 (1.35) 3.34 (1.17) 3.02 (1.17) 2.68 (1.09) 2.67 (1.16) 2.96 (1.19) 3.06 (1.17)
 Standardised non-HWL 3.76 (1.60) 3.07 (1.16) 2.82 (1.18) 2.44 (1.11) 2.54 (1.19) 2.75 (1.23) 2.99 (1.28)
 Standardised HWL 3.54 (1.60) 3.06 (1.24) 2.83 (1.16) 2.32 (1.19) 2.40 (1.14) 2.68 (1.16) 3.05 (1.29)
Within-Participant Variability
 Branded 1.17 0.85 0.96 0.92 0.95 1.09 1.21
 Standardised non-HWL 0.91 0.79 0.88 0.80 0.84 0.92 0.99
 Standardised HWL 0.86 0.78 0.88 0.63 0.73 0.87 0.99
  1. Number of participants: Branded = 191–215, Standardised non-HWL = 180–218, Standardised HWL = 168–192. Within-participant variability is the average of each participants’ standard deviation of ratings over the different brands