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Table 3 Association between maternal characteristics and attending four antenatal care visits among women who experienced a pregnancy outcome in the past year in three districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, 2016a

From: Utilization of key preventive measures for pregnancy complications and malaria among women in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia

  Attended four antenatal care visits
N (%)
Did not attend four antenatal care visits
N (%)
P value for the overall difference among the categories Factors associated with attending four antenatal care visits, univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Factors associated with attending four antenatal care visits, multivariable analysis
AOR (95% CI)d
Maternal age (years)
 15–18 123 (6.9) 108 (7.6) 0.0037 Reference Reference
 19–24 530 (29.8) 334 (23.6) 1.41 (1.05–1.89) 1.24 (0.91–1.68)
 25–34 863 (48.6) 731 (51.7) 1.01 (0.78–1.36) 1.04 (0.76–1.42)
 35–49 259 (14.6) 239 (16.9) 0.96 (0.69–1.31) 1.01 (0.69–1.46)
Education level
 No education 854 (48.1) 806 (57.1) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 Primaryb 564 (31.8) 477 (33.8) 1.11 (0.95–1.30) 0.99 (0.83–1.18)
 Secondarye 332 (18.7) 126 (8.9) 2.47 (1.96–3.11) 1.90 (1.46–2.47)
 Higher 25 (1.4) 3 (0.2) 8.38 (2.50–28.07) 5.24 (1.53–17.95)
Wealth
 Poorest 268 (15.1) 276 (19.5) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 Poorer 312 (17.6) 337 (23.8) 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 0.92 (0.73–1.17)
 Middle 344 (19.4) 270 (19.1) 1.27 (1.00–1.61) 1.27 (0.99–1.61)
 Wealthier 371 (20.9) 294 (20.8) 1.26 (1.00–1.59) 1.19 (0.94–1.51)
 Wealthiest 480 (27.0) 235 (16.6) 2.01 (1.58–2.56) 1.64 (1.27–2.12)
Frequency of reading newspaper/ magazine
 Not at all 1618 (91.1) 1318 (93.3) 0.0278 Reference Reference
 At least once a week 128 (7.2) 75 (5.3) 1.37 (1.01–1.84) 0.76 (0.54–1.07)
 More than once a week 29 (1.6) 19 (1.3) 1.28 (0.71–2.32) 0.38 (0.18–0.75)
Frequency of watching the TV
 Not at all 1490 (83.9) 1293 (91.6) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 At least once a week 133 (7.5) 52 (3.7) 2.15 (1.53–3.00) 1.60 (1.12–2.30)
 More than once a week 152 (8.5) 67 (4.7) 1.91 (1.41–2.59) 1.25 (0.88–1.79)
Frequency of contact with HEW
 Not at all 1098 (61.8) 955 (67.6) 0.0027 Reference Reference
 Less than once a month 483 (27.2) 290 (20.5) 1.42 (1.19–1.68) 1.37 (1.15–1.64)
 One or more times a month 194 (10.9) 167 (11.8) 0.95 (0.76–1.20) 0.88 (0.69–1.11)
Decision-making about healthcare
 Husband or family member 426 (24.0) 448 (31.7) 0.0002 Reference Reference
 Self 221 (12.4) 164 (11.6) 1.39 (1.09–1.77) 1.33 (1.03–1.70)
 Jointly 1128 (63.5) 800 (56.6) 1.46 (1.24–1.72) 1.32 (1.11–1.55)
Household size
  ≤ 4 692 (38.9) 463 (32.8) 0.0021 Reference Reference
 5–8 936 (52.7) 815 (57.7) 0.77 (0.66–0.89) 0.94 (0.76–1.16)
  ≥ 9 147 (8.3) 134 (9.5) 0.74 (0.57–0.97) 1.24 (0.81–1.92)
Number of children per household
  ≤ 3 1097 (61.8) 785 (55.6) 0.0009 Reference Reference
 4–6 612 (34.5) 547 (38.7) 0.80 (0.69–0.93) 0.91 (0.72–1.14)
  ≥ 7 66 (3.7) 80 (5.6) 0.61 (0.43–0.85) 0.54 (0.31–0.92)
Health problems during last pregnancy
 No 1368 (77.1) 1125 (79.7) 0.0385 Reference Reference
 Yes 407 (22.9) 287 (20.3) 1.18 (1.00–1.41) 1.17 (0.98–1.40)
Number of live birth
 0–1 479 (26.9) 316 (22.4) 0.0147 Reference Reference
 2–4 789 (44.4) 635 (44.9) 0.73 (0.59–0.88) 1.08 (0.87–1.36)
  ≥ 5 507 (28.5) 461 (32.6) 0.81 (0.68–0.97) 1.29 (0.87–1.36)
Prior stillbirth
 No 1708 (96.2) 1330 (94.2) 0.0217 Reference Reference
 Yes 67 (3.8) 82 (5.8) 0.63 (0.45–0.88) 0.65 (0.46–0.92)
Intended pregnancy
 No 467 (26.3) 500 (35.4) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 Yes 1308 (73.7) 912 (64.6) 1.54 (1.32–1.79) 1.37 (1.17–1.62)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, AOR Adjusted odds ratio
  2. Notes: a Numbers are rounded and may not add up to exactly 100%; bconsiders women who completed all or some primary school years; c considers women who completed all or some secondary school year; d AOR and corresponding 95% CI were obtained from a multivariate model, including variables with a significant univariate test at p-value cut-off point of 0.05
  3. Bold text indicates significant results at the level of p-value <0.05