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Table 2 Association between maternal characteristics and attending at least one antenatal care visit among women who experienced a pregnancy outcome in the past year in three districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, 2016a

From: Utilization of key preventive measures for pregnancy complications and malaria among women in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia

  Attended at least one ANC visit
N (%)
Did not attend ANC
N (%)
P value for the overall difference among the categories Factors associated with attending at least one antenatal care visit, univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Factors associated with attending at least one antenatal care visit, multivariable analysis
AOR (95% CI)g
Maternal age (years)
 15–18 231 (7.2) 54 (9.0) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 19–24 864 (27.1) 101 (16.9) 1.83 (1.25–2.67) 1.27 (0.84–1.91)
 25–34 1594 (50.0) 316 (52.9) 1.01 (0.72–1.42) 1.26 (0.85–1.88)
 35–49 498 (15.6) 126 (21.1) 0.884 (0.58–1.23) 1.33 (0.84–2.10)
Ethnic group
 Oromo 2995 (93.9) 552 (92.5) 0.0113 Reference Reference
 Amhara 66 (2.1) 7 (1.2) 1.11 (0.49–2.50) 0.85 (0.35–1.95)
 Other 126 (3.9) 38 (6.4) 0.56 (0.37–0.84) 0.58 (0.38–0.89)
Education level
 No education 1660 (52.1) 441 (73.8) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 Primaryb 1041 (32.6) 132 (22.1) 1.92 (1.55–2.39) 1.47 (1.16–1.87)
 Secondaryc or Higherd 486 (15.2) 24 (4.0) 4.57 (2.96–7.05) 2.38 (1.49–3.82)
Employment Status
 Not Employede 2510 (78.7) 448 (75.0) 0.0004 Reference Reference
 Self-employedf 583 (18.3) 143 (23.9) 0.78 (0.63–0.97) 0.79 (0.63–1.01)
 Employed 94 (2.9) 6 (1.0) 2.74 (1.16–6.45) 1.68 (0.69–4.09)
Wealth
 Poorest 544 (17.1) 214 (35.8) 0.0001 Reference Reference
 Poorer 649 (20.4) 156 (26.1) 1.45 (1.13–1.87) 1.53 (1.17–1.99)
 Middle 614 (19.3) 90 (15.1) 2.319 (1.74–3.08) 2.52 (1.87–3.39)
 Wealthier 665 (20.8) 95 (15.9) 2.27 (1.71–3.03) 2.37 (1.76–3.19)
 Wealthiest 715 (22.4) 42 (7.0) 4.96 (3.39–7.23) 4.29 (2.89–6.35)
Frequency of reading newspaper/ magazine
 Not at all 2936 (92.1) 577 (96.6) 0.0006 Reference Reference
 At least once a week 203 (6.4) 19 (3.2) 1.84 (1.12–3.00) 0.67 (0.38–1.18)
 More than once a week 48 (1.51) 1 (0.2) 11.64 (1.58–85.81) 2.48 (0.31–19.56)
Frequency of listening to the radio
 Not at all 1373 (43.1) 352 (58.9) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 At least once a week 879 (27.6) 124 (20.8) 1.76 (1.39–2.22) 1.27 (0.99–1.64)
 More than once a week 935 (29.3) 121 (20.3) 1.97 (1.56–2.49) 1.28 (1.00–1.66)
Frequency of watching the TV
 Not at all 2783 (87.3) 579 (96.9) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 At least once a week 185 (5.8) 13 (2.2) 2.30 (1.29–4.21) 1.39 (0.74–2.62)
 More than once a week 219 (6.9) 5 (0.8) 6.18 (2.50–15.28) 2.98 (1.15–7.74)
Frequency of contact with HEW
 Not at all 2053 (64.4) 461 (77.2) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 Less than once a month 773 (24.2) 98 (16.4) 1.61 (1.26–2.05) 1.69 (1.15–2.48)
 One or more times a month 361 (11.3) 38 (6.4) 1.86 (1.29–2.67) 1.66 (1.27–2.13)
Decision-making about healthcare
 Husband or family member 874 (23.1) 210 (5.5) 0.0086 Reference Reference
 Self 385 (12.1) 76 (12.7) 1.16 (0.86–1.57) 1.10 (0.81–1.51)
 Jointly with husband 1928 (60.5) 311 (52.1) 1.45 (1.21–1.81) 1.26 (1.02–1.56)
Household size
  ≤ 4 1155 (36.2) 132 (22.1) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 5–8 1751 (54.9) 374 (62.6) 0.54 (0.44–0.67) 0.87 (0.63–1.19)
  ≥ 9 281 (8.8) 91 (15.2) 0.43 (0.31–0.58) 0.75 (0.45–1.26)
Number of children per household
  ≤ 3 1882 (59.0) 244 (40.9) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 4–6 1159 (36.4) 305 (51.1) 0.51 (0.42–0.62) 0.74 (0.55–1.00)
  ≥ 7 146 (4.6) 48 (8.0) 0.47 (0.33–0.68) 0.76 (0.41–1.39)
Health problems during last pregnancy
 No 2491 (78.2) 509 (85.2) 0.0050 Reference Reference
 Yes 694 (21.8) 88 (14.7) 1.57 (1.22–2.02) 1.58 (1.22–2.05)
Number of live birth
 0–1 742 (23.7) 79 (13.4) < 0.0001 Reference Reference
 2–4 1424 (45.4) 229 (38.8) 0.67 (0.52–0.88) 0.97 (0.70–1.36)
  ≥ 5 968 (30.9) 282 (47.8) 0.40 (0.31–0.53) 0.84 (0.55–1.29)
Number of child-deaths
 None 2734 (85.8) 485 (82.1) 0.0059 Reference Reference
  ≥ 1 453 (14.2) 112 (18.8) 0.78 (0.61–0.98) 1.04 (0.79–1.35)
Intended pregnancy
 No 967 (30.3) 309 (51.7) <  0.0001 Reference Reference
 Yes 2220 (69.6) 288 (48.2) 2.18 (1.81–2.63) 1.68 (1.38–2.06)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, AOR Adjusted odds ratio
  2. Notes: a Numbers are rounded and may not add up to exactly 100%; bconsiders women who completed all or some primary school years; c considers women who completed all or some secondary school years; d secondary and higher education were combined given model conversion issues; e the unemployed category contains women who were unemployed, housewives or students; f the self-employed category contains women who are farmers and/or traders; g AOR and corresponding 95% CI were obtained from a multivariate model, including variables with a significant univariate test at p-value cut-off point of 0.05
  3. Bold text indicates significant results at the level of p-value <0.05