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Table 2 Cox proportional hazard model examining factors associated with relapsing among HIV+ smokers receiving care at the UAB 1917 HIV/AIDS clinic between April 2008 and April 2017

From: Mental health disorders and alcohol use are associated with increased likelihood of smoking relapse among people living with HIV attending routine clinical care

  Relapse
Unadjusted
HR (95% CI)
p-value Adjusted
HR (95% CI)
P-value
Socio-demographic     
 Log age10a 0.29 (0.09, 0.92) 0.03 0.57 (0.09, 3.48) 0.56
 Gender/sexual orientation
   Women REF   REF  
   Male heterosexual 0.85 (0.54, 1.34) 0.48 0.97 (0.56, 1.68) 0.91
   MSM 1.09 (0.77, 1.56) 0.62 1.21 (0.79, 1.84) 0.38
 Race/ethnicity
   White REF   REF  
   African American 1.09 (0.85, 1.42) 0.42 1.06 (0.76, 1.48) 0.73
Clinical/medical
 Length in care 0.95 (0.92, 0.98) 0.00 0.94 (0.91, 0.98) 0.00
 Adherent to ARTe 0.63 (0.44, 0.92) 0.02 0.65 (0.42, 0.99) 0.04
 Health Insurancee
   Private REF   REF  
   Public 1.41 (1.01, 1.96) 0.04 1.46 (0.97, 2.19) 0.06
   Uninsured 1.24 (0.92, 1.67) 0.16 0.86 (0.59, 1.25) 0.44
 Comorbiditiesb
   Cardiovascular 0.72 (0.49, 1.06) 0.09 0.87 (0.54, 1.40) 0.56
   Respiratory 1.05 (0.78, 1.41) 0.78 1.23 (0.86, 1.78) 0.24
   Metabolic 0.59 (0.40, 0.85) 0.00 0.82 (0.51, 1.32) 0.42
   Cancer 0.98 (0.63, 1.55) 0.96 0.99 (0.58, 1.71) 0.98
 Laboratory parameterc
   Plasma HIV-1 RNA < 200 copies/ml 0.96 (0.70, 1.31) 0.77 0.77 (0.56, 1.07) 0.12
 CD4 count (cells/μL)
    ≥ 200 0.89 (0.56,1.41) 0.62 0.61 (0.35, 1.07) 0.09
Behavioral and psychologicale
 Major Depression 1.57 (1.16, 2.11) 0.00 1.48 (0.99, 2.19) 0.053
 Anxiety symptoms 1.68 (1.28, 2.21) 0.00 1.55 (1.11, 2.17) 0.01
 Substance abused
   Never REF   REF  
   Prior 1.20 (0.89, 1.61) 0.23 1.48 (0.91, 2.42) 0.12
   Current 1.19 (0.77, 1.82) 0.43 1.35 (0.94, 1.94) 0.10
   Unknown 1.46 (0.97, 2.18) 0.06 1.02 (0.61, 1.64) 0.99
 Alcohol abuse
   No risk REF   REF  
   Low risk 1.01 (0.75, 1.35) 0.96 1.15 (0.81, 1.65) 0.44
   At risk 1.69 (1.13, 2.53) 0.01 1.74 (1.06, 2.85) 0.03
  1. Abbreviations: AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, ART antiretroviral therapy, CI confidence interval, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MSM men who have sex with men, UAB University of Alabama, Birmingham; clinically relevant variables with P values < 0.25 were included in the adjusted model. Bold typeface indicates statistical significance at the P < 0.05 level
  2. aHazard ratio per 10-year increment; bComorbidities: cardiovascular (stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disease, hypertension); respiratory (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bacterial pneumonia); metabolic (diabetes and dyslipidemia), patients without comorbidities were used as the reference group; cLab value closest to index visit; dSubstance abuse includes street opioids, prescription opioids, marijuana, crack/cocaine, amphetamines, sedatives, inhalants, hallucinogens; eAt baseline quit value
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