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Table 5 Coefficients of country gender differences for each smoking beliefs scale. Contrast coefficients, 95% IC, country classified according to Gender Index of Inequality from the most equal (The Netherlands) to the least (Ireland), Silne R, 2016, N = 12,979

From: Smoking beliefs across genders, a comparative analysis of seven European countries

  Gender effect in smoking beliefs (female versus male)
Positive individual Negative individual Positive social Negative social Gini INDEX
Beta 95% IC Beta 95% IC Beta 95% IC Beta 95% IC  
All countries 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.04** 0.03 0.05 −0.11** −0.15 −0.07 0.04** 0.03 0.05  
The Netherlands (low Gender Index of Inequality) 0.04 − 0.01 0.10 0.02 −0.01 0.05 − 0.08 − 0.18 0.01 0.07** 0.03 0.10 0.044
Finland −0.08 − 0.15 − 0.01 0.06** 0.03 0.10 − 0.20** − 0.32 − 0.08 0.03 − 0.01 0.06 0.056
Germany 0.10 0.03 0.16 0.00 −0.03 0.04 0.05 −0.07 0.17 0.00 −0.04 0.04 0.066
Belgium −0.03 −0.08 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.07 −0.02 −0.13 0.09 0.06 0.02 0.09 0.073
Italy 0.19** 0.14 0.24 0.05 0.02 0.08 −0.08 −0.17 0.00 0.01 −0.03 0.04 0.085
Portugal 0.00 −0.05 0.05 0.05** 0.02 0.08 −0.20** −0.31 − 0.10 0.06 0.02 0.09 0.091
Ireland (high Gini) −0.04 −0.08 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.07 −0.22** −0.29 − 0.15 0.07** 0.04 0.10 0.127
Model -2LogL −39,516    −30,042    −21,534    −27,175    
  1. Note: the coefficients are contrast estimates from one model for each belief scale
  2. * = p < 0.05; ** = p < 0.001