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Table 4 Percentage of agreement with each smoking belief, according to gender and country of data collection, analysis of variance (ANOVA, p value). Silne R, 2016, N = 12,979

From: Smoking beliefs across genders, a comparative analysis of seven European countries

  BOYS GIRLS All Group comparisons
Weekly smokers Not weekly smokers all Weekly smokers Not weekly smokers all Weekly smokers Not weekly smokers all ANOVA gender in weekly smokers (F) ANOVA gender in not weekly smokers (F) ANOVA smoking status (all, F)
Positive individual beliefs
 Feeling relaxed 86 38 44 88 38 43 87 38 44 2 1 1364.0*
 Losing weight 27 17 18 26 20 21 26 19 20 1 14.3* 47.9*
Positive social beliefs
 Looking cool 17 13 13 14 12 12 16 12 13 2 0 11.9*
 Looking grown-up 16 18 18 13 19 18 15 18 18 3 2 12.5*
 Looking masculine 15 11 12 5 9 8 10 10 10 48.1* 13.8* 0
 Looking feminine 5 4 5 7 4 4 6 4 4 2 6.3* 15.3*
 Getting a boy/girlfriend 9 6 7 6 4 4 7 5 6 6.0* 24.1* 10.6*
 Becoming popular 9 13 12 8 12 12 9 13 12 2 1 19.8*
 Appearing sexy 14 6 7 12 7 7 13 6 7 1 4.9* 103.2*
Negative individual beliefs
 Getting facial wrinkles 48 73 70 59 80 78 54 76 74 15.2* 81.8* 346.8*
 Having less ability to exercise 68 87 85 72 88 86 70 88 86 3 1 334.4*
 Getting lung cancer 87 95 94 89 97 96 88 96 95 2 17.8* 149.1*
 Having trouble breathing 80 93 91 85 96 94 83 94 93 5.6* 41.4* 263.2*
Negative social beliefs
 Getting into trouble 47 80 76 53 83 80 50 81 78 5.4* 24.8* 764.9*
 Most people reluctant to date 42 59 57 44 57 55 43 58 56 1 6.8* 115.7*
 Parents’ disapproval 85 96 95 88 96 95 86 96 95 3 2 266.4*
 Most people would not hire a smoker to babysit 64 80 79 63 81 78 64 80 78 1 0 218.8*
 Best friends’ disapproval 20 57 53 25 72 67 22 64 60 6.1* 288.6* 1004.9*
 Teachers’ disapproval 46 68 66 52 69 67 49 69 66 4.0* 0 219.1*
  1. Note: we controlled for multiple testing using the DUNCAN test option of the ANOVA procedure
  2. *p < 0,05