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Table 3 Odds ratios (95%) for receiving help (vs not receiving help) for emotional problems

From: Predictors of professional help-seeking for emotional problems in Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Australia: findings from the Building a New Life in Australia Database

GroupsIraq group (n = 791)Afghan group (n = 477)Total group (n = 1268) a
Bivariable odds ratios (95% CI)p valueMultivariable odds ratios (95% CI)p valueBivariable odds ratios (95% CI)p valueMultivariable odds ratios (95% CI)p valueBivariable odds ratios (95% CI)p valueMultivariable odds ratios (95% CI)p value
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Country of birth
  Iraq (ref.)    1.00 1.00 
  Afghanistan    0.93 (0.0.73–1.22)0.6541.38 (0.94–2.03)0.105
 Mean age1.03 (1.02–1.04)< 0.0011.01 (1.00–1.02)0.1861.03 (1.02–1.05)< 0.0011.02 (1.00–1.04)0.0221.03 (1.02–1.04)< 0.0011.01 (1.11–1.02)0.028
 Gender
  Male (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  Female1.08 (0.83–1.41)0.5820.86 (0.61–1.21)0.3811.55 (1.08–2.24)0.0191.21 (0.76–1.92)0.4291.24 (1.00–1.53)0.0550.97 (0.74–1.26)0.804
 Education
  Never attended school (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  9 or less years school0.77 (0.39–1.51)0.4561.64 (0.73–3.66)0.2310.68 (0.44–1.03)0.0661.01 (0.61–1.65)0.9810.86 (0.61–1.19)0.3541.13 (0.74–1.71)0.571
  10 or more years schooling0.45 (0.22–0.92)0.0290.76 (0.33–1.76)0.5180.73 (0.39–1.35)0.3151.03 (0.49–2.16)0.9310.62 (0.42–0.90)0.0130.69 (0.43–1.13)0.138
  Post-school education0.42 (0.20–0.86)0.0190.56 (0.23–1.34)0.1920.77 (0.25–2.39)0.6471.02 (0.29–3.62)0.9790.57 (0.37–0.89)0.0130.52 (0.30–0.91)0.022
 Location
  Major city (ref.)1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  Regional Australia0.81 (0.05–13.08)0.8832.37 (0.15–37.83)0.5411.26 (0.74–2.16)0.3940.90 (0.48–1.68)0.7341.17 (0.52–1.92)0.5451.06 (0.55–2.02)0.870
 Time in Australia
  Less than 6 months (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  6 months or more0.76 (0.48–1.20)0.2381.19 (0.68–2.08)0.5370.54 (0.33–0.89)0.0150.74 (0.42–1.31)0.2990.66 (0.47–0.92)0.0140.95 (0.65–1.38)0.776
 Importance of religion
  Very important (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  Important0.64 (0.44–0.93)0.0190.84 (0.53–1.33)0.4480.52 (0.31–0.89)0.0170.60 (0.34–1.05)0.0730.59 (0.44–0.81)0.0010.69 (0.49–0.96)0.030
  Not very important/ no religion^0.73 (0.31–1.71)0.4731.11 (0.36–3.45)0.8610.79 (0.36–1.75)0.5680.92 (0.40–2.13)0.8500.76 (0.43–1.36)0.4510.98 (0.67–1.43)0.981
 Frequency of difficulty travelling to where needs to go
  Never (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  Some of the time2.57 (1.65–3.99)< 0.0012.19 (1.33–3.60)0.0020.98 (0.55–1.75)0.9410.71 (0.36–1.41)0.3281.79 (1.23–2.54)0.0011.29 (0.86–1.91)0.221
  Always/ most of the time2.19 (1.44–3.32)< 0.0011.41 (0.88–2.26)0.1531.29 (0.73–2.26)0.3810.68 (0.36–1.26)0.2211.80 (1.23–2.52)0.0011.02 (0.70–1.45)0.911
General health and psychological measures
 Self-rated health
  Excellent/ very good (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  Good/ fair2.15 (1.38–3.34)0.0010.89 (0.51–1.54)0.6751.82 (1.20–2.77)0.0051.31 (0.79–2.17)0.2881.75 (1.31–2.35)< 0.0011.07 (0.75–1.54)0.701
  Poor/ very poor7.32 (4.45–12.04)< 0.0011.26 (0.62–2.55)0.5183.50 (1.70–7.22)0.0011.31 (0.52–3.31)0.5635.13 (3.54–7.43)< 0.0011.52 (0.90–2.56)0.114
 Disability or long-term health condition
  Has disability or health condition (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  No disability or health condition0.24 (0.17–0.32)< 0.0010.44 (0.28–0.69)< 0.0010.42 (0.26–0.68)< 0.0010.71 (0.39–1.29)0.2590.29 (0.23–0.38)< 0.0010.55 (0.39–0.77)0.001
 Number of potentially traumatic events
  1 event (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  2–3 events2.06 (1.30–3.25)0.0021.92 (1.11–3.31)0.0190.64 (0.37–1.11)0.1110.57 (0.32–1.03)0.0651.29 (0.92–1.83)0.1441.13 (0.77–1.67)0.529
  4 or more events2.15 (1.40–3.31)0.0011.67 (0.98–2.84)0.0571.39 (0.79–2.42)0.2531.15 (0.62–2.14)0.6561.65 (1.19–2.29)0.0031.29 (0.88–1.90)0.192
  No response0.98 (0.51–1.88)0.9421.28 (0.55–2.97)0.5680.67 (0.38–1.18)0.1700.71 (0.38–1.31)0.2730.83 (0.54–1.27)0.3840.90 (0.55–1.46)0.668
 Probable PTSD
  Unlikely PTSD (ref.)1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
  Likely PTSD3.43 (2.53–4.64)< 0.0011.58 (1.02–2.44)< 0.0391.79 (1.11–2.88)0.0171.16 (0.67–2.00)0.6032.64 (2.07–3.37)< 0.0011.42 (1.03–1.96)0.034
 Psychological distress (K6)
  K6 mean score1.14 (1.10–1.17)< 0.0011.09 (1.05–1.13)< 0.0011.07 (1.04–1.11)< 0.0011.04 (1.00–1.09)0.0581.11 (1.08–1.13)< 0.0011.07 (1.04–1.10)< 0.001
  1. BNLA, Wave 1 and Wave 3. Potentially traumatic events and help-seeking measured at Wave 3. All other independent variables measured at Wave 1
  2. a Excludes: 34 participants who did not report PTSD; 37 participants who did not report K6; 9 participants who did not report education; 14 participants who did not report disability; 10 participants who did not report on the importance of religion; 35 participants who did not report on the frequency of travelling difficulties. ^Includes one respondent with no religion