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Table 1 Socio-demographic profile of the study site (combined 11 years data)

From: Overcrowding and health in two impoverished suburbs of Johannesburg, South Africa

Characteristics N = 3121
n (%)
Sex (head of household)
 Female 2017 (64.6)
 Male 1104 (35.4)
Level of education (head of household)
 None 186 (6.0)
 Primary 773 (24.8)
 Secondary 1844 (59.2)
 Tertiary 294 (9.4)
 Missing 20 (0.6)
Household total monthly income
 No income 765 (24.5)
 R1001 – R5000 1589 (50.9)
 R5001 – R 10000 346 (11.1)
 > R10000 246 (7.9)
 Missing 175 (5.6)
Any member of the household smokes at home
 Yes 1082 (34.7)
 No 2039 (65.3)
Households with children under 5 years of age
 Yes 1356 (43.4)
 No 1765 (56.6)
Period of residence in the current dwelling
 <  10 years 1660 (53.2)
 >  10 years 1461 (46.8)
Perception of overcrowding in own dwelling
 No problem 2352 (75.4)
 Moderate problem 373 (12.0)
 Major problem 395 (12.7)
 Missing 1 (0.03)
Perception of overcrowding in the suburb
 No problem 1509 (48.4)
 Moderate problem 620 (19.9)
 Major problem 992 (31.8)
Degree of overcrowding in own dwelling by UN HABITAT definition
 Not overcrowdeda 1322 (42.4)
 Moderately overcrowdedb 1518 (48.6)
 Extremely overcrowdedc 281 (9.0)
  1. figures in parentheses are percentages
  2. a≤ two people/room
  3. bmore than 2 but ≤5 people/room
  4. cmore than 6 people/room