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Table 2 Average maltreatment, nonviolent offense and violent offense frequency by demographic descriptors

From: Describing associations between child maltreatment frequency and the frequency and timing of subsequent delinquent or criminal behaviors across development: variation by sex, sexual orientation, and race

  Average maltreatment frequency Average nonviolent offense frequency in adolescence Average violent offense frequency in adolescence
Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.
Sex
 Male 2.51 2.48 1.13*** 1.93 0.97*** 1.87
 Female 2.78*** 2.92 0.58 1.47 0.45 1.28
Race/ethnicity (white = referent)
 Hispanic 2.88** 3.22 1.07* 2.33 1.13*** 2.74
 Black 2.64 3.10 0.65* 1.78 1.01*** 2.28
 Asian 3.31*** 4.03 0.97 2.65 0.63 2.06
Native American 3.56*** 3.18 1.26* 2.05 1.26*** 2.11
 Other 2.52 2.12 1.09 2.11 0.58 1.62
 White 2.54 2.40 0.84 1.58 0.57 1.24
LGBQ
 No 2.53 2.65 0.82 1.74 0.72 1.67
 Yes 3.40*** 2.93 1.10*** 1.99 0.67 1.59
  1. *p-value< 0.05; **p-value< 0.01; and ***p-value< 0.001 in post hoc testing